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Animal welfare codes

About the animal welfare codes

Jersey has codes of practice for the welfare of animals kept:

  • for commercial breeding
  • in boarding facilities such as catteries or kennels
  • in sanctuaries
  • as livestock
  • during training
  • under the care of pet groomers
  • to be sold commercially
  • under the responsibility of professional dog walkers

The code is intended to ensure the welfare of animals and to encourage those responsible for looking after these animals to adopt the highest standards of care.

The 5 Freedoms

The code of practice takes account of 5 basic needs, known as the 5 Freedoms:

  1. freedom from hunger and thirst: by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour
  2. freedom from discomfort: by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area
  3. freedom from pain, injury or disease: by prevention or by rapid diagnosis and treatment
  4. freedom to express normal behaviour: by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animals' own kind
  5. freedom from fear and distress: by ensuring conditions and treatment to avoid mental suffering

Legislations

The animal welfare codes set out guidelines in accordance with a number of laws.

Animal Welfare (Jersey) Law 2004
Animal Health (Jersey) Law 2016
Veterinary Surgeons (Jersey) Law 1999
Wildlife (Jersey) Law 2021
Community Provisions (Welfare of Animals During Transport) (Jersey) Regulations 2013
European Communities Legislation (Implementation) (Cattle Identification) (Jersey) Regulation 2002
The Dogs (Jersey) Law 1961
Policing of Parks (Jersey) Regulations 2005
Policing of Roads (Jersey) Regulations 1959
Policing of Beaches (Jersey) Regulations 1959
The Health and Safety at Work (Jersey) Law 1989
The Employers' Liability (Compulsory Insurance) (Jersey) Law 1973

Animal sanctuary

Introduction

1. The paramount aim of any animal rescue organisation must be the welfare of the animals in their care.

Starting a new rescue centre

2. For those considering starting a new rescue centre that will care for dogs, cats or other species, the following points should be considered:

3. Is there a need for such a charity? If a local or national charity already exists, it may be better to develop liaison with it rather than starting a new organisation.

4. Have Trustees and competent staff who are committed to provide full time care with sufficient knowledge about the care of dogs, cats or other species been nominated?

5. Can sufficient funds be found to sustain the charity?

Housing

6. Specific animal housing, husbandry and management recommendations, requirements and practices for individual species should be followed as stipulated in the applicable codes of practice.

7. In the case of exotic animals, such as reptiles for example:

  • snakes, iguanas or lizards
  • chelonians, such as tortoises and terrapins
  • amphibians, such as frogs

particular care should be taken to ensure that their individual, species specific environmental requirements are met at all times. This includes suitable ventilation, relative humidity, temperature, lighting and additional access to a suitable ultraviolet light source if appropriate for that species must be provided. All chelonians should have access to fresh water for drinking and bathing.

Bedding

8. Animals must be provided with a suitable area with adequate bedding to allow the animal to lie comfortably.

Temperature

9. The sleeping accommodation must be capable of being maintained at an ambient temperature appropriate for the species and breed.

Lighting

10. The accommodation must be adequately lit, by natural daylight with adequate supplementary artificial lighting to allow proper working and cleaning of compartments.

Ventilation

11. A draught free atmosphere must be maintained in the sleeping quarters of the animals with an adequate number of air changes, where applicable.

Management

Cleanliness

12. The accommodation and ancillary establishment, kitchen, corridors, runs etc must be maintained in a state of cleanliness conducive to maintenance of disease control and animal comfort. All excreta and soiled material should be removed at least once daily or as necessary for the species, from all living and exercise compartments and disposed of in an appropriate manner. The floors of the living compartment must be clean and dry. Care must be taken to protect animals from disinfectant poisoning associated with cleaning routines.

Litter trays

13. Cats must be provided at all times with adequate litter trays. Facilities must be provided for the collection of all used bedding, cat litter and other waste material. All material must be disposed of in an appropriate manner.

Routines

14. Animals must be adequately supplied with suitable food. Clean fresh drinking water must be available at all times and changed daily. Where bedding material is used it should be maintained in a clean and dry state. Moveable benches should be removed for thorough cleaning as necessary.

Exercise

15. All animals should have access to exercise on a daily basis and supervised if necessary. Staff should be encouraged to interact with the dogs, cats and other domestic animals as appropriate.

16. Precautions should be taken to minimise the risk of disease outbreak.

Grooming

17. All animals must be groomed regularly and care must be taken to ensure that the animals are free from parasitic infestation and the coats are free from matts.

Records

18. A record must be kept containing a description of all animals received into the establishment, noting date of arrival and departure, and the name and address of the new owner. Records of veterinary treatment must also be kept. Records must be kept available for inspection at all times by an authorized person.

Supervision

19. Whilst animals are at the establishment there must always be a competent person available. Animals must be visited at suitable intervals for their health safety and welfare.

20. Special arrangements must also be made to attend to sick animals during the day and night.

Feeding equipment and storage

21. Feeding utensils must be satisfactorily cleaned or disposed of after each feed. A food preparation area must be provided and be separate from staff facilities. It must be kept clean and vermin free at all times. Refrigeration facilities must be provided where fresh foods are used. All bulk supplies of food must be kept in vermin proof containers.

Veterinary care and disease control

22. All reasonable precautions must be taken to prevent and control the spread of infectious disease among animals. Adequate isolation facilities must be provided.

23. Routine disinfecting of a cage or kennel at a change of occupancy should be adequate to protect the new occupant from the disease or parasites of its predecessor. A complete change and disinfection of bedding, water and feeding utensils is required.

24. Animals should be vaccinated, as appropriate for the species, to offer protection against infectious diseases. Veterinary advice should be sought.

25. Dogs accepted with an unknown vaccination history, for example stray dogs, must be kept separate, away from any vaccinated boarding animals.

26. Advice from a veterinary surgeon must be sought where an animal shows signs of disease, injury or illness. Where any animal is sick or injured, any instructions for its treatment, which have been given by a veterinary surgeon, must be strictly followed.

27. Treatment may be euthanasia. A competent person must ensure veterinary advice is followed.

28. Each organisation is required to nominate a veterinary surgeon who shall be- responsible for the health of animals entering and resident within the centre. The veterinary surgeon should advise on prevention of disease, including vaccinations, and should explain the 'on-call' facilities for animals requiring veterinary care. All veterinary products must be stored, used and disposed of as directed by the Veterinary Surgeon.

29. Animals should be euthanased following veterinary advice, if their quality of life is such that continuance of life will cause unnecessary suffering.

Staff training

30. Where an organisation has employees and volunteers, they should be fully trained according to the organisation's standard procedures. There should always be supervision and induction training for new staff; particularly those not experienced in animal handling.

Emergencies and fire prevention

31. Appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of all animals in case of fire or other emergencies.

32. A proper emergency evacuation plan and fire warning procedure must be drawn up in consultation with the Fire Safety Officer and posted on the premises.

33. Fire fighting equipment must be provided in accordance with advice given by the Fire Safety Officer

34. All electrical installations and appliances must be maintained in a safe condition.

35. Heating appliances must not be sited in a location or manner where they may present a risk of fire, or risk to animals.

36. Precautions must be taken to prevent any accumulation of materials which may present a risk of fire.

37. There must be adequate means of raising the alarm in the event of fire or other emergency.

Transport

38. Vehicles should be suitable for transportation of animals, ensuring the safety of animals in transit as well as ensuring suitable restraint.

39. Animals must be transported suitably and appropriately for the individual species and should not be left unattended in vehicles. There should be adequate ventilation provided.

40. The interior of vehicles must be kept in a clean condition with strict attention to disease control.

41. Vehicles should be maintained to high standards and regularly serviced.

Training of animals

42. Any training of animals must be carried out by staff who have been trained in modern, positive reinforcement training techniques. It is expected that staff involved with training will have an understanding of the characteristics of each species and rely on reward and reward orientated stimuli to modify behaviour. The use of physical punishment apparatus, such as electric shock collars, should not be used.

43. Where possible each organisation should aim to provide an individual responsible for the evaluation and recommendation of positive behavioural programmes to enhance the opportunity for adoption of animals that exhibit behavioural or social difficulties.

Rehoming practices

The following procedures are advised when responsibly rehoming any animal.

44. The organisation must be committed to a high standard of responsible rehoming Practices.

45. All rescue organisations should aspire to a non-destruction policy of healthy animals.

46. Other than the requirement for euthanasia on humane grounds, euthanasia should only be recommended if extreme physical or behavioural conditions exist which make rehoming impossible. It is essential that euthanasia is carried out by or under the direction of a veterinary surgeon, using an approved method

Animal assessment

47. Assess the characteristics of each particular animal in order to match it with the most suitable type of home.

Owner assessment

48. Obtain information about the new owner and their family to ensure their circumstances and facilities fit the requirements of the animal they are about to rehome. Where necessary, visit the home of the new owner to ensure the facilities are suitable.

Animal preparation

49. Ensure, where possible, that the animal has had a full veterinary examination, been fully vaccinated, is parasite free and has some form of identification, as appropriate for the species, prior to leaving the rescue centre.

Permanent identification

50. In addition to current legislative requirements, consideration should be given to micro-chipping and keeping an appropriate database as the means of permanently identifying dogs and cats in the care of the organisation.

Neutering

51. Where possible the organisation should have the animal neutered and aim to promote and encourage neutering. Advice on the benefits and reasons for neutering should be given.

Owner support

52. Provide advice to the new owner on any relevant details about the animal and its future care, both behavioural and veterinary. Advise that the organisation will take the animal back if the re-homing is unsuccessful.

Provisions for wildlife species

53. The welfare of the individual must be the prime consideration before embarking on treatment and rehabilitation. Although it is appropriate also to consider the conservation status of the species.

54. As a general principle, any wildlife casualty (that is any sick, injured or orphaned wild animal that is unable to survive in the wild without human intervention) retained for treatment at a wildlife rehabilitation unit or wildlife rescue centre should have a reasonable expectation of successful release and long term survival in the wild.

55. The Wildlife (Jersey) Law 2021 should be referred to for specific legal aspects of taking of wild animals, the release of wild animals and their welfare whilst in captivity.

56. The facilities of the centre and the expertise of the personnel should dictate the species, the ages, the total numbers and the types of casualties that can be handled.

57. Rescue centres and rehabilitation units should ensure that, if they are prepared to attend wildlife casualties in the field, they have suitable, well maintained equipment for the capture, restraint, first-aid and transportation of the species likely to be encountered and that all personnel are trained in the techniques involved.

58. At all times during handling and transportation of wildlife casualties, care must be taken to ensure that any additional stress to which the casualty is exposed is minimized, no further injury is sustained and the animal is secure from escape.

59. Facilities and trained personnel should be available in every centre to administer first-aid and to house a casualty in clean, secure, secluded and, if required, heated accommodation. A basic first aid kit should be available and maintained with the advice and assistance of the attending veterinary practice.

60. At all stages of treatment of a wildlife casualty, its welfare must be the prime concern. Each centre should have a close working relationship with a local veterinary practice.

61. Advice from a veterinary surgeon must be sought where an animal shows signs of disease, injury or illness. Where any animal is sick or injured, any instructions for its treatment, which have been given by a veterinary surgeon, must be followed. A competent person must ensure this advice is followed.

62. Careful thought must be given to the assessment of each case, its welfare whilst in captivity, its potential for release and, if appropriate, its long term care. An early assessment of the condition of a casualty and the nature and extent of its injuries or disease is essential to establish a programme of treatment. Such assessment requires, in most cases, the assistance of a veterinary surgeon.

63. The Centre's facilities and the staff's experience may be unsuitable for a particular species or type of treatment. Close links with other centres able to provide these facilities and early referral of suitable cases will ensure the welfare of a casualty is not compromised.

64. Consideration must be given to protect personnel at a centre from injury whilst handling casualties and from the risk from infectious agents (zoonotic infection). Working practices and training should be designed to minimise such risks.

65. Dedicated facilities for the treatment of animals, preparation of animal food and washing of any animal bedding must be provided.

66. Accommodation for wildlife casualties should provide the following:

  • security from escape
  • seclusion from threatening sights sounds and smells
  • safety, to prevent the casualty from damaging itself
  • ability to provide food and water in containers that the casualty can reach and use, without excessive soiling
  • provision for changing food and water containers with minimum disturbance to the casualty
  • provision of heat, where necessary, in a safe and controllable manner
  • provision to clean the floor and change any bedding with minimum disturbance to the casualty and to allow thorough physical cleaning and disinfection between patients

67. Following treatment, most casualties, especially long-term casualties, will require a period of convalescence in suitably sized accommodation (in which there is sufficient space to allow the casualty to exercise) which, as far as possible, will mimic the natural environment. Methods of feeding, watering and cleaning the accommodation should cause minimum disturbance to the occupant.

68. Every effort must be taken to prevent the imprinting of wildlife casualties onto human carers.

69. Facilities of a centre or experience of the staff may not be suitable for the convalescence phase for certain species. Close links with other centres able to provide these facilities will ensure the welfare of a casualty.

70. Before the release of any animal an assessment should be made of its ability to survive in the wild. Particular attention should be paid to locomotion, the casualty's senses, behaviour and physical condition.

71. Each rehabilitator should assess the ethics of keeping a permanently disabled casualty, taking into account advice from a suitably experienced veterinary surgeon; the animal's welfare should be the overriding consideration.

72. Permanent casualties should be assessed daily and records kept on their diet, health and veterinary treatment.

Cat breeding

These recommendations are additional to recommendations made for boarding catteries which are likely to be relevant in large breeding establishments.

Housing

1. A kittening pen should be provided for each individual queen from the time of kittening until time of weaning. This pen should be at least 91 centimetres long, 76 centimetres wide and 76 centimetres high. It should be of adequate size and contain a litter tray, water and food bowls and a box that is either disposable or capable of being disinfected, for containment of kittens.

Walls

2. The walls with which cats may come into contact should be of smooth impervious materials, capable of being easily cleansed. Where concrete or other building blocks or bricks are used, they should be sealed to be smooth and impervious, and resealed as necessary.

3. There must be no projections or rough edges liable to cause injury.

4. Junctions between vertical and horizontal sections should be covered. If impractical in existing premises, joints should be sealed.

5. Full length and height sneeze barriers should be provided where the gap between units is less than 625 millimetres (2 feet).

Floors and concrete bases

6. The concrete base and floors of all building and units should be of smooth, impervious materials, capable of being easily cleansed. In new constructions, this should incorporate a damp proof membrane.

7. Floors of all units and individual exercise areas should be constructed and maintained to prevent pooling of liquids.

Ceilings and roofing

8. Ceilings should be capable of being easily cleansed and disinfected.

9. All exercise areas and the external safety passages should be covered with mesh or equivalent.

Doors

10. Doors must be strong enough to resist impact and scratching and must be fitted to be capable of being effectively secured.

11. Where metal edging is used, this must not present a risk of injury to the cat.

12. Construction should prevent and control the spread of infectious disease particularly by droplet infection.

Windows

13. All windows which pose a security risk must be escape proof at all times.

Drainage

14. Kitchens should be connected to mains drainage or an approved, local sewage disposal system.

Lighting

15. During daylight hours light must be provided to exercise and sleeping areas. Where practical this should be natural light.

16. Adequate supplementary lighting must be provided throughout the establishment.

Ventilation

17. Ventilation must be provided to all interior areas without the creation of excessive localised draughts in the sleeping area.

Maintenance

18. Maintenance and repair of the whole establishment must be carried out regularly and recorded.

Sleeping and exercise facilities

19. In new constructions, each unit should have a sleeping area and an adjoining exercise area, which is exclusive to that unit.

20. Suitable clean bedding must be provided and must be capable of being easily cleaned and disinfected, if it is to be reused. Bedding material should be checked daily and maintained in a clean, parasite-free and dry condition.

21. Units should open into secure areas so that cats are not able to escape from the premises.

22. Exercise areas to which there should be direct and voluntary access, must not be used as sleeping areas.

Kitchen facilites

23. Hygienically constructed and maintained facilities should be provided for the storage and preparation of food for the cats.

24. Where fresh and cooked meats are stored, refrigeration facilities must be provided. Food contamination must be avoided.

25. A sink with hot and cold water must be provided for washing food equipment and eating and drinking bowls. A separate wash-hand basin with hot and cold water should be provided for staff use.

26. Containers must be provided for storage of foods. These should be vermin proof and capable of cleaning and disinfection.

Isolation facilities

27. Isolation facilities should be provided where there is more than 1 cat.

28. When any cat is showing signs of or has been diagnosed with an infectious disease, it must be isolated.

29. These isolation facilities must comply with the other requirements but must be physically isolated from the main units. The separation should be a minimum 3 metres (10 feet).

30. Adequate facilities and practices to prevent spread of infectious disease between the isolation unit and other units must be in place. A disposable overall or boiler suit for use solely in the isolation unit is recommended. Hands must be washed after leaving the isolation facilities.

Management

31. Cats must be adequately supplied with suitable food, drink and bedding material and inspected at appropriate intervals.

Supervision

32. Cats must be inspected at intervals not exceeding 4 hours, throughout the day and more frequently when kittening.

Temperature

33. Heating facilities must be available and used if required.

34. Extremes of temperature should be avoided.

35. There must be some part of the sleeping area accessible to the queen, where the minimum temperature is 15 degree Celsius and the maximum temperature is 26 degree Celsius.

36. The environmental temperature for kittens from birth to 24 hours of age should be 30 to 33 degree Celsius. When the kittens reach 2 to 4 days of age the temperature should be reduced to 26 to 30 degree Celsius. The queen should have access to a cooler area.

Food and water

37. Cats must be adequately supplied with suitable food. Clean water must be available at all times and changed daily.

38. Eating and drinking bowls must be capable of being easily cleansed and disinfected to prevent cross-contamination. They must be maintained in a clean condition and cleaned or disposed of after each meal.

Disease control, vaccination and worming

39. All reasonable precautions must be taken to prevent and control the spread of infectious or contagious diseases and parasites. Your veterinary surgeon's advice should be sought and followed.

40. All cats should be vaccinated against feline infectious diseases. Your veterinary surgeon's advice should be sought and followed.

41. Veterinary advice must be sought when a cat shows signs of disease, injury or illness. Any advice given by a veterinary surgeon must be strictly followed.

Staff training

42. A written training policy should be provided. Staff training records should be kept.

Emergencies and fire prevention

43. Appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of the cats in case of fire or other emergencies. Use of a smoke detector is recommended.

44. A proper emergency evacuation plan and fire warning procedure must be drawn up in consultation with the Fire Safety Officer and posted on the premises.

45. Fire Safety equipment must be provided in accordance with advice given by the Fire Safety Officer.

46. All electrical installations and appliances must be maintained in a safe condition. There should be a residual current circuit breaker system on each block of units.

47. Heating appliances must not be sited in a location or manner where they may present a risk of fire, or risk to cats.

48. Precautions must be taken to prevent any accumulation of materials which may present a risk of fire.

49. There must be adequate means of raising the alarm in the event of fire or other emergency.

Transport

50. All vehicles used by the establishment for the transportation of cats must be regularly serviced and clean. They must be capable of being fitted with or contain secure units for the safe transportation of cats and be provided with adequate ventilation. All vehicles must be secure and should not be left unattended when transporting cats, except for loading and unloading.

51. All appropriate steps should be taken to ensure that the cats are provided with suitable food, drink and bedding material when being transported to or from the breeding establishment.

Health and welfare of the breeding queen

Mating

52. A maiden queen should be allowed to have at least 3 to 4 calls before her first mating as she should be mature.

53. A maiden queen should preferably be at least 12 months of age at the time of birth of her first litter.

Maximum number of litters

54. Queens should not give birth to more than 6 litters of kittens in their lifetime and should not be mated after the age of 7 to 8 years.

Time between litters

55. There should be at least 9 months between the queen giving birth to a litter of kittens.

Records

56. Accurate records should be kept for each breeding queen providing the identification of the queen, date of birth, address where she is kept, breed, date of mating and details of sire. Licensed cat breeders must also keep a record of any litters, including the sex of the kittens, date of birth, weight, description and total number in the litter. The record must also show the details of sale and name and address of purchaser.

57. It is recommended that all cats and kittens are microchipped by a veterinary surgeon.

Catteries

Housing

Catteries

1. All exterior wood should be smooth and properly treated against wood rot. Only products which are not toxic to cats should be used.

2. All internal surfaces used in the construction of walls, floors, partitions, doors and door frames should be durable, smooth and impervious. There must be no projections or rough edges liable to cause injury.

3. Sleeping areas of units should be insulated to prevent extremes of temperature.

4. Fencing material must be secure and safe. There should be no projections or rough edges liable to cause injury.

5. The construction must be such that security of the cat is ensured.

6. All areas to which cats have free access must be roofed.

Walls

7. The walls with which cats may come into contact should be of smooth impervious materials, capable of being easily cleansed. Where concrete or other building blocks or bricks are used, they should be sealed to be smooth and impervious, and resealed as necessary.

8. Junctions between vertical and horizontal sections should be covered. If impractical in existing premises, these joints should be sealed.

9. Full length and height sneeze barriers should be provided where the gap between units is less than 625 millimetres (2 feet).

Floors and concrete bases

10. The concrete base and floors of all buildings and units should be of smooth, impervious materials, capable of being easily cleansed. In new catteries, this should incorporate a damp proof membrane.

11. Floors of all units and individual exercise areas should be constructed and maintained to prevent pooling of liquids.

Ceilings and roofing

12. Ceilings should be capable of being easily cleansed and disinfected.

13. All exercise areas and the external safety passages should be covered with mesh or equivalent.

Doors

14. Doors must be strong enough to resist impact and scratching and must be fitted to be capable of being effectively secured.

15. Where metal edging is used, this must not present a risk of injury to the cat.

16. Construction should prevent and control the spread of infectious disease particularly by droplet infection.

Windows

17. All windows which pose a security risk must be escape proof at all times.

Drainage

18. Kitchens used for producing/preparing animal meals should be connected to mains drainage or an approved, local sewage disposal system.

19. Individual drainage is required in cases where the drain is inside the kennel to which the cat has access.

Lighting

20. During daylight hours light must be provided to exercise and sleeping areas. Where practical this should be natural light.

21. Adequate supplementary lighting must be provided throughout the establishment.

Ventilation

22. Ventilation must be provided to all interior areas without the creation of excessive localised draughts in the sleeping area.

Maintenance

23. Maintenance and repair of the whole establishment must be carried out regularly and recorded.

Sleeping and exercise facilities

24. In new constructions, each unit should have a sleeping area and an adjoining exercise area, which is exclusive to that unit.

25. In new constructions, each unit should be provided with a sleeping area of at least:

  • 0.85 square metre (9 square feet) for 1 cat
  • 1.5 square metre (16 square feet) for 2 cats
  • 1.85 square metre (20 square feet) for up to 4 cats

26. Units should have a minimum internal height of I.8 metre (6 feet) in the exercise area. The height of the sleeping area should be at least 91 centimetres (3 feet) in existing units and 1.22 metre (4 feet) in new buildings.

27. Suitable clean bedding must be provided and must be capable of being easily cleaned and disinfected, if it is to be reused. Bedding material should be checked daily and maintained in a clean, parasite-free and dry condition.

28. In new construction, each unit should be provided with an exercise area of at least:

  • 1.7 square metre (18 square feet) for 1 cat
  • 2.23 square metre (24 square feet) for 2 cats
  • 2.78 square metre (30 square feet) for up to 4 cats

29. Units should open into secure areas so that cats are not able to escape from the premises.

30. Exercise areas to which there should be direct and voluntary access, must not be used as sleeping areas.

Kitchen facilites

31. In cases where more than 6 cats are boarded, exclusive facilities, hygienically constructed and maintained, must be provided for the storage and preparation of food for the cats.

32. Where fresh and cooked meats are stored, refrigeration facilities must be provided. Food contamination must be avoided.

33. A sink with hot and cold water must be provided for washing food equipment and eating and drinking bowls. A separate wash-hand basin with hot and cold water should be provided for staff use.

34. Containers must be provided for storage of foods. These should be vermin proof and capable of cleaning and disinfection.

Isolation facilities

35. Isolation facilities must be provided.

36. When any cat is showing signs of or has been diagnosed with an infectious disease, it must be isolated.

37. These isolation facilities must comply with the other requirements but must be physically isolated from the main units. The separation must be a minimum 3 metres (l0 feet).

38. Adequate facilities and practices to prevent spread of infectious disease between the isolation unit and other units must be in place. A disposable overall or boiler suit for use solely in the isolation unit is recommended. Hands must be washed after leaving the isolation facilities,

Management

39. The maximum number of cats to be boarded at any one time must be appropriate for the facilities.

40. Each cat must be provided with a separate unit except cats from the same household who may share a unit of adequate size at the owner's request. Cats from different households must not be mixed at any time.

41. A spare emergency unit of the same specification, for holding animals temporarily, may be available.

42. Stray cats must not be accepted.

Temperature in units

43. Heating facilities must be available in the unit and used according to the requirements of the individual cat.

44. Sleeping area temperature should be between 15 to 26 degree Celsius.

45. Extremes of temperature should be avoided.

46. In isolation units, there should be a means of maintaining the temperature at a level suitable for the conditions of the cat and dependent on veterinary advice.

Cleanliness

47. All areas must be kept clean and free from dirt and dust in order to maintain disease control and cat comfort.

48. Each occupied unit must be cleaned daily. All excreta and soiled material must be removed from areas used by cats at least daily and more often if necessary.

49. All bedding areas must be kept clean and dry.

50. Suitably sited litter trays, which are impermeable and easy to clean, must be provided. These must be emptied and cleaned at least once a day and more frequently if necessary throughout the day. A suitable material for litter must be provided.

51. Each unit must be thoroughly cleaned, disinfected and dried upon vacation. All fittings and bedding must also be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected at that time.

52. Facilities must be provided for the proper reception, storage and disposal of all waste. Particular care should be taken to segregate clinical waste arising from the treatment and handling of cats with infectious diseases. Clinical waste must be incinerated.

53. Measures to control the risks from rodents, insects and other pests must be undertaken without endangering the health or welfare of the cats.

Food and water

54. All cats must be adequately supplied with suitable food. At least 2 meals a day should be offered approximately 8 hours apart. Fresh, clean water must be available at all times and changed daily.

55. Eating and drinking bowls must be capable of being easily cleansed and disinfected. Disposable eating dishes may be used.

56. Eating bowls must be cleaned or disposed of after each meal.

57. Drinking bowls must be cleaned at least once a day.

Records

58. A register must be kept of all cats boarded. The information kept must include:

  • date of arrival
  • name of cat, and any identification such as microchip number or tattoo
  • description, breed, age and gender of cat
  • name, address and telephone number of owner or keeper
  • name, address and telephone number of emergency contact person
  • name, address and telephone number of cat's veterinary surgeon
  • anticipated and actual date of departure
  • health, welfare and nutrition requirements
  • vaccination status

59. The register must be kept readily available for a minimum of 24 months.

60. Where records are computerised, a back-up copy must be kept.

Identification of units

61. Each unit must be clearly identified. Relevant information about the cat in the unit should be readily available.

Supervision

62. A fit and proper person must always be available to exercise supervision and deal with emergencies.

63. Cats must be visited at regular intervals as necessary for their health, safety and welfare.

Disease control and vaccination

64. Adequate precautions must be taken to prevent and control the spread of infectious and contagious disease and parasites amongst cats, staff and visitors.

65. Proof must be provided that cats boarded or resident have current vaccinations against infectious feline diseases. Your veterinary surgeon's advice should be sought and followed. The course of vaccination must have been completed in accordance with manufacturers' instructions or veterinary advice. A record of current vaccination status should be kept. Any cat which is not vaccinated must not be accepted.

66. Advice from a veterinary surgeon must be sought in case of signs of disease, injury or illness. Any instructions given by a veterinary surgeon must be strictly followed.

Staff training

67. A written training policy should be provided. Staff training records should be kept.

Emergencies and fire prevention

68. Appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of the cats in case of fire or other emergencies. Use of a smoke detector is recommended.

69. A proper emergency evacuation plan and fire warning procedure must be drawn up in consultation with the Fire Safety Officer and posted on the premises.

70. Firefighting equipment must be provided in accordance with advice given by the Fire Safety Officer.

71. All electrical installations and appliances must be maintained in a safe condition. There should be a residual current circuit breaker system on each block of units.

72. Heating appliances must not be sited in a location or manner where they may present a risk of fire, or risk to cats.

73. Precautions must be taken to prevent any accumulation of materials which may present a risk of fire.

74. There must be adequate means of raising the alarm in the event of fire or other emergency.

Transport

75. All vehicles used by the establishment for the transportation of animals must be regularly serviced and kept clean. They must be fitted with cages of adequate size for the safe transportation of animals and be provided with adequate ventilation. All vehicles must be secure and should not be left unattended when transporting animals, except for loading and unloading.

Cattle

Introduction

1. The welfare of cattle can be safeguarded and their behavioural needs met under a variety of management systems. The system, and the number and stocking rate of cattle kept at any one time, should depend on the suitability of the conditions and the skills of the stockkeeper.

2. Consideration should be given to the question of animal welfare before installing more complex or elaborate equipment than has previously been used. In general the greater the restriction imposed on the animal and the complexity of the system or degree of control which is exercised over temperature, air flow or food supply, the less the animal is able to use its instinctive behaviour to modify the effect of unfavourable conditions and the greater the chance of suffering if mechanical or electrical failures occur. Thus systems involving a high degree of control over the environment should only be installed where conscientious staff skilled in both husbandry and the use of the equipment will always be available.

3. Although very large herds can be managed successfully, in general the larger the size of the unit the greater the degree of skill and conscientiousness needed to safeguard welfare. The size of a unit should not be increased nor should a large unit be set up unless it is certain that the stockkeeper in charge will be able to safeguard the welfare of the individual animal.

4. All stockkeepers should be familiar with the normal behaviour of cattle. Badly managed and unhealthy cattle will not do well, and it is essential that the stockkeeper should watch for signs of distress or disease. It is important for management purposes that stockkeepers should have ample time for the inspection of stock and checking of equipment.

5. The signs of ill-health in cattle include listlessness, loss of appetite, sudden fall in milk yield, cessation of cudding, discharge from the nostrils or eyes, excessive salivation, persistent coughing, swollen joints, lameness, and scouring. In particular, calves should be watched carefully for signs of scouring or respiratory disorders which could spread rapidly.

6. The good stockkeeper should be able to recognise trouble in its earliest stages and may often be able to identify the cause and put matters right immediately. If the cause is not obvious or if the stockkeeper's immediate action is not effective, veterinary or other expert advice should be obtained as soon as possible.

Housing

General

7. Advice on welfare aspects should be sought when new buildings are to be constructed or existing buildings modified.

8. Internal surfaces of housing and pens for calves should be of materials which can, and should, either be cleaned and disinfected, or be easily replaced when necessary. The recommended dimensions for individual calf pens is a minimum length 10% greater than the calf's length, measured from the nose tip to the tuber ischii (pin bone) and a pen width at least equal to the height of the calf's withers.

9. Construction and sitting of individual calf pens should allow individual calves to see other animals in neighbouring pens or stalls, unless they have been isolated for veterinary reasons. Solid-floored calf pens should have a slope of about 1:20 to provide adequate drainage.

10. A dry lying area should be available to all housed cattle including youngstock. Straw or other suitable bedding is strongly recommended. The pens should provide a minimum floor area of one square metre for each 100 kilograms of bodyweight of an individual or group of animals and take account of their maximum growth whilst occupying the pen.

11. Fittings and internal surfaces of buildings, cubicles, pens, kennels, milking parlours, stalls and passages accessible to cattle should not have sharp edges or projections. Fittings should be arranged and maintained to avoid injury to cattle.

12. Mature cows housed in cubicles, kennels or stalls, should be provided with at least one per cow to enable all animals in the group to lie down at any one time. The minimum floor area of cubicles, kennels or stalls housing mature cows should not be less than 2 square metre. The design should provide for the cows' comfort and allow them easy entry and exit.

13. When cattle are housed in cubicles and kennels they should have access to an additional loafing area (including passages and feeding areas) of at least 2.5 square metre per cow for exercise and natural social behaviour.

14. Where tethers or ties are used, they should not cause injury or distress to the cattle or calves. Cattle should be untied and allowed to exercise at least once daily, with access to feed and water if the exercise period is prolonged. Consideration should be given to the adoption of a suitable loose-housing system.

15. All cattle, whether tethered or in pens, should at all times have sufficient freedom of sideways movement to be able to groom themselves without difficulty and sufficient room to lie down, freely stretch their limbs and be able to rise. The width of the pen for a single-penned animal should be not less than the height of the animal at the withers.

16. Where mature cows are housed in yards a minimum dry bedded and loafing area of 5 square metre per cow should be provided.

17. All floors, particularly slatted ones, should be designed, constructed and maintained to avoid discomfort, distress or injury to the cattle. Remedial action should be taken if any of these occurs.

18. Cows should not be kept in a totally slatted area. A solid floored area incorporating straw or a suitable bed should be provided to ensure comfort and reduce risk of injury to the udder, to which dairy cows are particularly vulnerable.

19. In accommodation for cows, it is essential to provide separate solid floored bedded pens for use at calving time. The minimum floor area of a pen used for individually housing a cow due to calve should be no less than 9 square metres. There should be at least one dedicated calving pen provided on each dairy farm with a minimum area of 0.25 square metre of bedded solid floor pens or yards dedicated to calving for each cow in the herd.

20. Bull pens should be sited to allow the bull sight and sound of farm activity. Mature bulls should be provided with an individual pen with a minimum floor area of 15 square metres incorporating a dry bedded lying space plus an exercise and feeding area.

21. Paints and wood preservatives which may be toxic to cattle should not be used on surfaces accessible to them. Particular care is necessary to guard against the risk of lead poisoning from old paintwork in any part of the building or when second-hand building materials are used.

22. When cattle are fed in groups there should be sufficient trough space or feeding points to avoid undue competition for food, especially if cattle are not fed to appetite.

23. Provision should be made for the segregation and comfort of sick or injured animals.

24. A cattle crush and race or other adequate facilities with quick-release devices are essential for the proper treatment of animals under examination, treatment or test.

Ventilation and temperature

25. Effective ventilation of buildings and the avoidance of draughts are essential. Properly designed natural ventilation reduces the risk of breakdown. There should be an alarm system independent of the mains electricity supply to warn the stockkeeper of failure of any automatic equipment. Expert advice may be necessary to ensure correct temperature, air flow and humidity for the type of stock housed.

26. When cattle are kept in unroofed units it is important to provide effective shelter from wind and a dry comfortable lying area. Unroofed units are not suitable in very wet exposed areas, especially for young calves without their dams.

27. Although healthy young calves can tolerate low air temperatures well, newborn animals, calves that have been transported or deprived of food, or sick calves, are particularly susceptible to chilling. Chilling can usually be avoided in a well-ventilated, unheated building by the use of thick, dry bedding and the avoidance of draughts. Sick individuals may benefit from artificial heat provided with suitable precautions to prevent fire.

28. When removing slurry from under slats, special care is essential to avoid fouling the air with dangerous gases which may be fatal to man and animals. It is important that the building should be thoroughly ventilated during this operation.

Lighting

29. Throughout the hours of daylight the level of indoor lighting, natural or artificial, should be such that all housed cattle can be seen clearly. In addition, adequate lighting for satisfactory inspection and to allow any necessary action to rectify problems should be available at all times. Cattle and calves must not be kept in permanent darkness.

Mechanical equipment and services

30. All equipment and services, including feed hoppers, drinkers, milking machines, ventilating fans, heating and lighting units, fire extinguishers and alarm systems, should be cleaned and inspected regularly and kept in good working order. They should be regularly tested. To guard against the possibility of a breakdown, alternative ways of feeding, of operating machinery used for milking and of maintaining a satisfactory environment should be available.

31. All automatic equipment should be inspected by a stockkeeper, or other competent person, not less than once each day to check that there are no defects. Where a defect is found it must be rectified as soon as possible. Action must be taken to safeguard the welfare of animals until the fault is rectified and the equipment is back in full working order.

32. All electrical installations at mains voltage should be inaccessible to cattle and properly earthed.

Management

33. A live calf should not be removed from the farm of birth for at least 3 days unless for suckling by another newly calved cow. A calf showing any signs of ill-health should not be moved other than for treatment.

34. Housed calves should be closely inspected frequently, and at least twice daily. It is desirable that all cattle should be inspected at least daily, for signs of injury, illness or distress.

35. Any injured or ailing animal should receive appropriate treatment and veterinary advice, if necessary, should be sought without delay. Sick and injured animals should be placed, where possible, in suitable isolated accommodation with dry, comfortable bedding.

36. Regular attention should be paid to the feet of all classes of cattle.

37. When loose-housed, growing cattle should be grouped according to age, sex, size, behavioural needs and the presence or absence of horns should be taken into account. Appropriate advice may be necessary.

38. Fractious or horned cattle should not be loose-housed where there is danger of injury or bullying. Consideration should be given to the disbudding of calves.

39. Male calves reared for slaughter at below 10 months of age should not be castrated and kept in small groups preferably of not more than 10 animals.

40. Bulls should be reared, housed and grazed separately from each other, mixing of mature bulls should be avoided at all times. It is essential that suitable handling facilities are provided for bulls. It may be necessary to give special attention to the strengthening of housing and fencing and the provision of suitable handling facilities and equipment.

41. Electric fences should be so designed, installed and maintained that contact with them does not cause unnecessary pain or distress to the cattle.

42. The marking of cattle for identification should be done with care by competent operators to avoid unnecessary pain or distress to the animals at the time of marking or subsequently. All cattle in Jersey now have to be double ear tagged with officially approved tags.

43. If aerosols or paints are used for temporary marking, only non-toxic materials should be used.

44. Neck bands or chains, tail bands or leg bands, used for management purposes, should be fitted with care and adjusted as required to avoid any unnecessary pain or distress to the animals.

45. The tail-docking of cattle is prohibited unless performed for clinical reasons by a veterinary surgeon.

46. Castration, disbudding and dehorning must be undertaken in accordance with the law. The operation must be carried out by veterinary surgeon or by a competent trained operator where a layman is permitted to undertake the operation.

The current legislation states that:

The following operations may be performed without an anaesthetic by a veterinary surgeon or other suitably trained person:

  • the castration of a bull using Burdizzo pliers before the animal reaches 2 months of age
  • the castration of a bull using a rubber ring if applied within the first week of the animal's life
  • the disbudding of calves by chemical cauterisation as long as it is performed within the first week of the animals life
  • the removal of supernumerary teats provided this is done before the animal reaches 3 months of age

The removal of horn buds from calves using a hot disbudding iron may also be performed by a non-veterinarian provided it is done with the correct use of an anaesthetic.

47. Cattle should be handled quietly but firmly at all times and with care to avoid unnecessary pain or distress. This applies particularly to cows during milking, and care should be taken that they are not over-milked. Milking machines should be constructed, installed and maintained in accordance with current ISO standards

48. Appropriate methods should be used to prevent parasitic infestations or to treat them if they occur.

49. When breeding, especially from maiden heifers, sires should be carefully selected, taking into account size, age and previous record, to reduce injury and the likelihood of calving difficulties. Cows and heifers should be managed to be in suitable bodily condition at the time of calving. Stockkeepers should be experienced and competent in the techniques of calving and pay particular attention to hygiene, especially at assisted calvings. Mechanical calving aids should only be used by a competent person who has received proper instruction in their use. Veterinary advice should be sought at an early stage if difficulties are suspected.

50. In exposed grazing areas where natural shelter or shade is not available, consideration should be given to the provision of artificial protection from the weather. Out-wintered cattle should have access to a well-drained lying area and, if necessary, to adequate supplementary nutrition.

Feed and water

51. Whatever feeding system is adopted, all cattle should receive a daily diet which is adequate to maintain full health and vigour.

52. It is vital that every calf receives colostrum from its dam, or from another newly calved cow, as soon as possible after it is born and certainly within the first 6 hours of its life; it should continue to do so for the first 3 days. Thereafter, the calf should receive suitable food at frequent intervals.

53. All calves should be checked daily by a competent person with regard for their general health, paying particular attention to breathing and the condition of nose, eyes, navel, anus, feet and legs. The calves' immediate requirements should also be assessed taking into account the time since they were last fed.

54. All calves should receive liquid food at least once a day during the first 4 weeks of life and until they are eating adequate quantities of suitable solid food. For normal development unweaned calves should have access to palatable unmilled roughage and fresh clean water. If the calf is more than 14 days old, it should have access to dried feed or forage material containing sufficient digestible fibre to enable development of the rumen. Where calves are housed as a group and do not have continuous access to feed, or are not fed by an automatic feeding system, each calf should have access to the food at the same time as others in the group.

55. Where calves are being raised for veal production, particular care should be taken to ensure that they obtain sufficient available iron to maintain them in good health.

56. To facilitate adequate feeding and to limit the spread of disease or 'vice', housed calves should be kept either singly or in small groups until they are weaned off liquid food. When calves are fed by natural suckling or by mechanical means, other penning arrangements may be satisfactory.

57. Whilst calves are being bucket fed each calf should have its own bucket. Utensils used for feeding liquids should be thoroughly cleansed immediately after each use and disinfected daily by heat or with a suitable chemical sterilising agent. Troughs should be kept clean and any stale food removed. Automatic feeding equipment should be cleaned at regular and frequent intervals.

58. Cattle should have access to sufficient fresh clean water at least twice daily and preferably all the time.

59. Water troughs and buckets, especially those in calf houses, loose-housing and cubicle units, should be constructed and sited so as to protect them from fouling and to minimise the risk of water freezing in cold weather. Water troughs, bowls and nipples should be kept thoroughly clean and should be checked at least once daily to ensure they are dispensing water.

Tethering of cattle

60. Where tethers are used for calves they must not cause injury and must be inspected regularly and adjusted, if necessary, to ensure a comfortable fit. Each tether must be of sufficient length to allow the calf to stand up, lie down, rest and groom itself without hindrance. The design must avoid any risk of strangulation or injury. Consideration should be given, by those farms using calf tethering, to changing to a loose housing system.

61. Outdoor tethering of cattle requires a high degree of supervision with the animals being inspected and moved at least twice per day. Cattle should not be tethered where there are obstacles and a risk of the chain becoming entangled; or close to a highway where they may be a danger to pedestrians, cyclists or motor vehicles, or could be injured by a passing vehicle.

62. Calves under the age of 9 months must not be tethered outside in the winter months beginning I November and ending on the 30 April in the following year.

63. Special care should be taken to ensure that neck chains, halters or ropes form a comfortable fit and do not cause distress or injury.

64. Chains or ropes used as tethers must not cause distress or injury to the animals and must be inspected regularly and adjusted as necessary to ensure a comfortable fit. Each tether must be of sufficient length to allow the animal to stand up, lie down, rest, exercise and groom itself without hindrance. Each tether must have a least 1 free running swivel in its length to reduce the risk of strangulation.

65. If animals over the age of 9 months have to be tethered outside during the winter months, they should be confined to land where shelter from the direct effects of cold winds and driving rain is afforded by a hedge, tree belt or other structure. Cattle should not be tethered outside at all in very bad weather conditions. Consideration should be given to alternative methods of managing cattle on those farms where tethering is used.

66. When cattle are tethered, whether in summer or winter, it is imperative that they are provided with adequate quantities of food and water. Water should be offered to the animals at least twice daily with adequate supplementary feed being provided when the quantity and quality of forage is limited. It is particularly important to ensure that animals do not go short of water in hot weather conditions.

Care of unwanted infant calves

67. Despite some new born (infant) calves being financially worthless, their welfare is of the utmost importance and they must be properly cared for. All owners, managers and stockkeepers must be aware that they have legal and ethical responsibilities for the welfare of these animals.

68. The following points should be taken into consideration when caring for live unwanted calves on-farm whilst awaiting slaughter and disposal. The calves should:

  • be bedded in clean dry areas
  • be protected from wind and rain
  • not be subject to extremes of heat or cold
  • have sufficient room to lie down, turn around and stand
  • not have legs tied together or be placed in a sack

The calves must not be carried by their legs, thrown, dragged or pulled along by the head, tail or ears and be provided with sufficient liquid food to maintain full health.

Staff training

69. The code identifies good stockmanship as a key factor in farm animal welfare and this code is an essential tool for every stockkeeper. All persons involved with cattle should read it carefully and bear its recommendations in mind at all times.

70. Stockmanship is a key factor because, no matter how acceptable a system may be in principle, without competent, diligent stockmanship, the welfare of the cattle cannot be adequately catered for. The code recommendations are designed to help all stockkeepers and particularly those who are young or inexperienced, to attain the required standards. Staff training must be carried out to ensure stockkeepers are competent in handling and routine procedures which they carry out together with recognising signs of ill health and action to take.

Emergencies and fire prevention

71. Farmers should make advance plans for dealing with emergencies such as fire, flood or disruption of supplies, and should ensure that all staff are familiar with the appropriate emergency action.

72. Fire precautions should be a major priority for every stockkeeper. Expert advice should be sought from the Fire Safety Officer.

73. In the design of new buildings, or the alteration of existing buildings, there should be provision, for livestock to be released and evacuated quickly in cases of emergency. Materials used in construction should have sufficient fire resistance to enable emergency procedures to be followed.

74. All electrical, gas and oil services should be planned and fitted so that if there is overheating, or flame is generated, the risk of flame spreading to equipment, bedding or the fabric of the building is minimal. It is advisable to site power supply controls outside buildings. Consideration should be given to installing fire alarm systems which can be heard and acted upon at any time of the day or night.

75. In case a 999 call has to be made, notices should be prominently displayed in all livestock buildings stating where the nearest telephone is located. Each telephone should have fixed by it a notice giving instructions on the best route to the farm and a description of the location of the telephone on the farm.

76. There is usually some warning of interruptions in the supply of feeding stuffs and, so far as possible, arrangements should be made to lay in adequate stocks to offset the effects of such a contingency.

Transportation

Many of the recommendations are legal requirements. The Diseases of Animals (Welfare in Transit) (Jersey) Order 2001 refers to:

77. Cattle should not be handled or transported in a way which causes or is likely to cause injury or suffering to that animal.

78. No cattle should be transported unless fit for the intended journey and suitable provision has been made for its care both during the journey and on arrival at the place of destination.

79. An animal shall not be considered fit to travel if it is ill, injured, infirm, fatigued, is likely to give birth on the journey or is a new born calf in which the navel has not completely healed.

 80. The means of transport, or the receptacle in which the animal is placed, shall be constructed, maintained and operated so as to avoid injury and unnecessary suffering and to ensure the safety of the animals during transport, loading and unloading, it should also be escape proof.

81. Any floor on which the animals stand or walk during loading, unloading or transport shall be sufficiently strong to bear their weight and constructed, maintained and operated to prevent slipping and injury.

82. Means of transport and other receptacles used to contain cattle should be free from any sharp edges and projections likely to cause injury or unnecessary suffering.

83. Means of transport or receptacles used to contain cattle shall have sufficient lighting to enable the proper care and inspection of any animal being carried.

84. Means of transport and receptacles shall be constructed, maintained and operated so as to allow appropriate cleaning and disinfection.

85. The accommodation for the carriage of cattle shall be such that the animals are provided with adequate space to stand in their natural position. The following floor areas are indicated for guidance:

Calves or cattle sizeWeight (kilograms)Floor space (square metres)
Small calvesless than 50kg0.3 to 0.4
Large calves50 to 110kg0.4 to 0.7
Small cattle120 to 200Kg0.7 to 0.95
Medium cattle210 to 325Kg0.95 to 1.30
Large cattle330 to 550Kg1.30 to 1.60
Very large cattle560 to 700kg and over1.60 and over

86. Means of transport and receptacles used to contain cattle must provide appropriate ventilation and sufficient air space above the animal to allow air to circulate properly.

87. Partitions shall be used, if necessary, to provide adequate support for animals and to prevent animals being thrown about during transport. Partitions should be of rigid construction strong enough to withstand the weight of any animal thrown against it and positioned so that they do not interfere with ventilation.

88. Every ramp which is carried or forms part of a vehicle used to transport cattle shall be non-slip. It is recommended that the slope should not be more than 25 degrees. Any steps or gaps should be designed to avoid injury and suffering to the animal being moved.

89. When animals are tied in transit the ropes or other attachments used, should be designed in such a way as to eliminate any danger of strangulation or injury and allow quick release of the animal in an emergency. Animals should not be tied by the horns or nose rings.

90. No excessive force should be used to load, unload or transport any cattle. The use of any stick, goad or other instrument or thing to hit or prod any cattle under 6 months is prohibited and their use should be avoided, if possible, when handling older cattle.

91. The following animals should not be carried in an undivided vehicle, pen or receptacle with other animals: a cow accompanied by a calf it is suckling or a bull over 10 months of age (unless it has been raised in a compatible group).

92. Cattle should be segregated from other species, unless separation from their companion animal would cause either of the animals distress. Horned cattle should be segregated from non-horned cattle unless they are all secured. A carcass of a dead animal should not be transported with live cattle. Animals that die in transit must be removed as soon as possible.

93. Cattle should be segregated whilst in transit with due regard to their differences in age, size and temperament, with partitions used if necessary, to avoid injury and unnecessary suffering that could be caused to one or all of the animals.

94. All animals in transit should be in the charge of a person who has been suitable trained to provide the necessary care and attention to safeguard their welfare.

Cattle welfare code in Portuguese

Dog breeding

These recommendations are additional to recommendations made for boarding kennels which are likely to be relevant in large breeding establishments.

Housing

1. Dogs should be kept in accommodation suitable as respects:

  • construction
  • size of quarters
  • numbers of occupants
  • exercising facilities
  • temperature
  • lighting
  • ventilation
  • cleanliness

Walls and partitions

2. Walls with which dogs may come into contact must be of smooth impervious materials, capable of being easily cleaned. Where concrete or other building blocks or bricks are used, they should be sealed so as to be smooth and impervious, and resealed as necessary.

3. There must be no projections or rough edges liable to cause injury.

4. Junctions between vertical and horizontal sections should be coved. If impractical in existing premises, joints should be sealed.

5. Partition walls between kennels and individual exercise areas should be of solid construction to a minimum height of 1.2 metre (4 feet).

6. Fencing material should be secure and safe.

Floors

7. Floors of all buildings, individual exercise areas and kennels should be of smooth, impervious materials, capable of being easily cleaned. It is recommended that new kennels should incorporate a damp proof membrane.

8. All floors of kennels and individual exercise areas should be constructed and maintained in such a condition as to prevent pooling of liquids.

9. In new constructions, it is recommended that floors should be laid to a minimum fall of 1 in 80 leading to a shallow drainage channel or effectively covered deep drainage channel.

10. Communal exercise areas should be suitably drained to prevent pooling of liquids.

Ceilings

11. Ceilings must be capable of being easily cleaned and disinfected

Doors

12. Kennel doors should be strong enough to resist impact and scratching and should be capable of being effectively secured.

13. Where metal bars and frames are used, they should be of suitable gauge with spacing adequate to prevent dogs escaping or becoming entrapped. Where metal edging is used, this should not present a risk of injury to the dog.

14. Door openings should be constructed to allow easy passage of water and waste.

Windows

15. Windows should not pose a security risk and should be escape proof.

Drainage

16. The establishment must be connected to mains drainage or an approved sewerage disposal system.

Lighting

17. During daylight hours light must be provided to exercise and sleeping areas. Where practicable this should be natural light.

18. Adequate supplementary lighting must be provided throughout the establishment.

Ventilation

19. Ventilation must be provided to all interior areas without the creation of excessive, localised draughts in the sleeping area.

Maintenance

20. Maintenance and repair of the whole establishment must be carried out regularly and recorded.

Sleeping and exercise facilities

21. Kennels should be provided with an adequate size of sleeping area.

22. Bedding should be suitable to allow dogs to be comfortable. Bedding must be capable of being easily cleaned and sanitised and sited away from draughts. All bedding material in use should be clean, parasite fee and dry.

23. Adequate exercise areas must be provided for in all kennels.

24. Kennels should have a minimum height of 1.8 metre (6 feet) to allow adequate access by kennel staff for cleaning.

25. Kennels and exercise areas should open onto secure corridors or other secure areas so that dogs are not able to escape from the premises.

26. Exercise areas should not be used as sleeping areas.

Kitchen facilities

27. Hygienically constructed and maintained facilities should be provided for the storage and preparation of food for the dogs.

28. Where fresh and cooked meats are stored, refrigeration facilities must be provided. Food contamination must be avoided.

29. A sink with hot and cold running water must be available for washing kitchen utensils and eating and drinking bowls. A separate hand basin with hot and cold water should be provided for staff.

30. Containers for storing foods should be provided and should be constructed and maintained to guard against insects and other pests.

Isolation facilities

31. Facilities for isolation should be available where there is more than 1 dog.

32. An adequate area to prevent the spread of infectious disease between the isolation case and any other dogs must be provided.

33. Adequate facilities and practices to prevent spread of infectious disease between the isolation unit and other units must be in place. A disposable overall or boiler suit for use solely in the isolation unit is recommended. Hands must be washed after leaving the isolation facilities.

Management

34. Dogs must be adequately supplied with suitable food, drink and bedding material, adequately exercised and visited at suitable intervals.

Supervision

35. A fit and proper person should always be available to exercise supervision and deal with emergencies.

36. Dogs must be checked regularly throughout the day.

Temperature in kennels

37. Heating facilities must be available and used if required.

38. There must be some part of the sleeping area where the dog is able to enjoy a minimum temperature of 10 degree Celsius (50 Fahrenheit) and a maximum temperature of 26 degree Celsius (79 Fahrenheit).

39. Sleeping areas of kennels must be insulated to prevent extremes of temperature.

Food and water

40. All dogs must be adequately supplied with suitable food. Clean water must be available at all times and changed daily.

41. Eating and drinking bowls must be capable of being easily cleaned and disinfected to prevent cross-contamination. They must be maintained in a clean condition and cleaned or disposed of after each meal.

Disease control, vaccination and worming

42. All reasonable precautions should be taken to prevent and control the spread of infectious or contagious diseases and parasites. Your veterinary surgeon's advice should be sought and followed.

43. All dogs should be vaccinated against canine infectious diseases your veterinary surgeon's advice should be sought and followed.

44. Advice from a veterinary surgeon must be sought where a dog shows signs of disease, injury or illness. Any advice given by a veterinary surgeon must be strictly followed.

Staff training

45. A written training policy should be provided. Staff training records should be kept.

Emergencies and fire prevention

46. All appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of the dogs in case of fire or other emergency. Use of a smoke detector is recommended.

47. A proper emergency evacuation plan and fire warning procedure must be drawn up in consultation with the Fire Safety Officer and posted on the premises.

48. Fire Safety equipment must be provided in accordance with advice given by the Fire Safety Officer.

49. All electrical installations and appliances should be maintained in a safe condition. There should be a residual current circuit breaker system on each block of kennels.

50. Heating appliances should not be sited in a location or manner where they may present a risk of fire, or risk to dogs.

51. Precautions should be taken to prevent any accumulation of material which may present a risk of fire.

52. There should be adequate means of raising an alarm in the event of a fire or other emergency.

Transport

53. All vehicles used by the establishment for transporting dogs must be regularly serviced and clean. They must be capable of being fitted with or contain secure units for the safe transportation of dogs and be provided with adequate ventilation. All vehicles must be secure and should not be left unattended when transporting dogs, except for loading and unloading.

54. All appropriate steps should be taken to ensure dogs are provided with suitable food, drink and bedding material when being transported to or from the breeding establishment.

Health and welfare of the breeding bitch

Mating

55. Bitches should not be mated if they are less than 1 year old.

Maximum number of litters

56. Bitches should not give birth to more than 6 litters of puppies.

Time between litters

57. Bitches should not give birth to puppies before the end of the period of 12 months beginning with the day on which they last gave birth to puppies.

Records

58. Accurate records should be kept for each breeding bitch providing the identification of:

  • the bitch
  • date of birth
  • address where she is kept
  • breed
  • date of mating
  • details of sire

Licensed dog breeders must also keep a record of any litters, including:

  • the sex of the pups
  • date of birth
  • weight
  • description
  • total number in the litter

The record must also show the details of sale, namely the date of sale, name and address of purchaser.

59. It's recommended that all dogs and pups bred are microchipped by a veterinary surgeon.

Dog training

Practice

1. The training methods employed and advised shall be consistent with the 5 Freedoms. The use of coercive or punitive techniques and equipment should not be used, including pinch collars, electric shock collars and any other equipment which may cause physical or psychological damage.

2. The training techniques employed and advised should be modern, reward based, non-compulsive methods.

3. Assistants must be supervised by an experienced instructor until fully competent.

4. Trainers and Instructors should be fully conversant with modern reward based training methods such as those put into practice by recognised organisations such as the Association of Pet Dog Trainers and the Kennel Club.

5. Where possible all instructors should achieve a relevant qualification.

Dog walking professionals

Introduction

1. Dog walking may be the only role that a person undertakes but it may be part of a wider range of services. Including Pet Minding (the pet stays at the minder's home or premises) or Pet Sitting (the pet stays at its home with the sitter or the sitter visits regularly throughout the day).

Dogs may be walked from their homes or their minder's home or premises or transported short distances in a vehicle to another area to be exercised.

2. This guidance relates only to the transport, walking and exercise of dogs by those caring for them in a professional capacity. However, some aspects also apply to anyone walking a dog in a public place.

Specific guidance

3. The dogs must not cause nuisance to other members of the public or worry or otherwise interfere with the safety, comfort or convenience of any other person using a public space.

4. Professional walkers should respect and behave courteously to members of the public and other members of their profession.

5. Walkers must follow general restrictions requiring dogs to be on a lead in certain public places and when on beaches between 10.30am and 6pm from 1 May to 30 September.

6. The dogs must not be allowed to worry livestock.

7. The dogs must not be allowed to unduly disturb wildlife including nesting birds.

8. All dogs that are exercised in a public place by a walker should wear a collar with the name, address and telephone number of the owner inscribed on the collar or on a plate or badge attached to the collar, as per the Dogs (Jersey) Law 1961.

9. Walkers may also want to consider placing a second disc on the dog's collar with their mobile phone number on it should a dog escape them while it's under their control, they may also use something like a dog vest or coat as a clear means of spotting and identifying the dog.

10. Walkers must clear up faeces from all dogs in their care and ensure that it is appropriately sealed and disposed of in suitable dustbins.

11. Walkers must have a means of removing deposited faeces with them at all times when they are exercising dogs in public places. Faeces and waste bags must be placed in appropriate receptacles.

Handling

12. Walkers must assess how robust a dog is, the dog's temperament, fitness and determine the current stage of the sexual cycle of entire females so that only compatible dogs are exercised together. If the walker is not proficient or qualified to assess a dog's compatibility to mix with others then they must seek the opinion of someone who is.

13. Walkers must only walk dogs that they are capable of managing. Walkers must not walk dogs, individually or as part of a group, that could overpower them or drag and pull them over.

14. Where it's permitted, only dogs with a reliable recall should be allowed to exercise freely off a lead and with the prior written permission of the dog owner. If uncertain the walker should assess a dog's recall in an enclosed area before allowing the dog to exercise freely in an open space.

15. A dog walker should exercise no more than 5 dogs or the number covered by their insurance policy at any time and must keep them in their sight to ensure that their activities are monitored at all times.

16. Walkers who allow the dogs under their control to mix with other groups of dogs on walks remain responsible for the safety and behaviour of their dogs.

17. Walkers should not use long lines, extending leads and stretchy leads on more than 2 dogs at one time. Walker may still exercise more dogs at a time but no more than 2 should be controlled using long lines, extending leads and stretchy leads.

18. Except where inappropriate, for example when lone walking, when walking dogs in public places dog walkers should have the name of their business clearly visible on themselves and their vehicle.

Animal health

19. The duration and intensity of exercise provided for a dog by a walker must be appropriate for the dog's age and health status. The walker must also take into consideration the weather and environmental conditions when determining the appropriate duration and intensity of exercise to provide a dog. In a group the maximum duration and intensity of exercise provided must be no more than the weakest member of that group can manage in the prevailing conditions.

20. Walking dogs in extreme weather conditions should be avoided. The ability of dogs to cope with extreme weather conditions varies depending upon age, breed, health status and the state of the dog's coat. Dogs should not be exercised in temperatures equal to or exceeding 24 degree Celsius in the shade.

21. Dog walkers must be aware of the signs of heat stroke.

22., Dog walkers should be familiar with signs of disease, infection and illness so that dogs showing signs of infectious disease, such as kennel cough, are not walked or socialised with other animals.

23. Dog walkers should be trained in dog first-aid and have a dog first-aid kit available.

Transport

24. Dog walkers should refer to relevant advice on Protecting the welfare of pet dogs and cats during journeys.

The following is taken from the Professional Dog Walker Guidelines produced by the Dogs Trust, Pet Industry Federation and RSPCA.

25. Vehicles used to transport dogs for short distances to exercise areas must:

  • contain dogs individually in separate spaces or in compatible groups where there's written consent from the owners
  • the separate spaces may consist of permanently fixed cages or temporarily fixed crates that have adequate ventilation
  • the space provided for dogs must be robust, smooth and rounded. It should not present a risk of injury or entrapment
  • the spaces must be big enough to allow the dog to stand up, lay down and turnaround (see further guidance on IATA Live Animal Regulations website). anything less than these minimum space requirements could compromise welfare. Contact your veterinary adviser if you need help
  • the floor must provide grip for the dog to move and avoid slipping
  • the door to the space must be lockable to avoid accidental release and unauthorised opening
  • dogs may access and exit the spaces without assistance or where necessary by being lifted or utilising ramps or steps
  • the space for dogs must be leak-proof and able to be cleaned and disinfected
  • the space for dogs must be 'spot' cleaned and disinfected as necessary, and thoroughly cleaned weekly
  • the temperature in the space for dogs ashould be maintained in a comfortable range for the dogs of 16 to 21 degree Celsius in the shade by either artificial or natural means
  • a thermometer should be fixed in the space where the dogs are kept to enable assessment but must not be accessible to the dogs
  • a supply of drinking water and water bowls should be available to the dogs
  • the vehicle should contain a first aid kit for dogs and a first aid kit for humans
  • the contact details of the walker, including mobile phone number, should be available in a prominent position in or on the vehicle for members of the public to see

27. Dog walkers should avoid leaving dogs unattended in a vehicle while exercising others. This must be avoided entirely in hot weather.

If leaving dogs unattended in a vehicule is unavoidable, the vehicle must maintain a comfortable temperature in the space where the dogs are kept. This must be in the range of 16 to 21 degree Celsius in the shade, by either artificial or natural means. Natural means include:

  • parking the vehicle in full shade and ensure it'll remain in full shade for at least 30 minutes
  • leaving doors and windows open to allow air to circulate freely around the locked cages or crates
  • orienting the vehicle to utilise any natural breeze

Dog walkers leaving dogs unattended in a vehicule should have remote monitoring of the temperature within the vehicule that they can pick up in real time.

Dogs left unattended in a vehicule must be provided with a supply of drinking water.

Dogs must not be left unattended in a vehicle for more than 30 minutes.

Health and safety

28. Under the Health and Safety at Work (Jersey) Law 1989 a dog-walking business must ensure that nobody else, such as members of the public, are put at risk by the way that a dog walker carries out their business. These obligations extend to risks associated with poorly controlled dogs.

29. If a dog walking business has 5 or more employees, it is required, by law, to prepare a written health and safety policy as well as written risk assessments of the significant risks associated with the business, and bring these to the attention of employees.

30. Dog walkers must ensure that safe systems of work are adopted, which control the foreseeable risks associated with their working activities. They must ensure that they have sufficient experience and skills in areas such as:

  • dog handling
  • canine care and behaviours
  • calming signals
  • obedience techniques

to be able to make appropriate, individually tailored, assessments of the dogs under their care, and how they can be safely controlled whilst being transported and walked. Failure to do so may represent a breach of their legal obligations under the Health and Safety at Work Law.

Records

31. A register must be kept of all dog owners. The information kept shall include the following:

  • name of dog, and any identification such as microchip number or tattoo
  • description, breed, age and gender of dog
  • name, address and telephone number of owner or keeper
  • name, address and telephone number of emergency contact person,
  • name, address and telephone number of dog's veterinary surgeon
  • health, welfare and nutrition requirements
  • vaccination status

32. Dog walkers should have emergency contact details of all owners at all times and of the dog owner's private veterinary surgeon.

Insurance

33. All professional dog walkers should have third party and professional indemnity insurance that covers their activities.

34. Only persons over 16 years of age should walk dogs professionally in public places, see section 33.

Staff training

35. When staff are employed, a written training policy should be provided. Staff training records should be kept.

Emergencies and fire prevention

36. Dog walkers should carry a charged mobile telephone for use in emergencies.
Appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of the dogs in case of fire or other emergencies.

Duck

The code identifies good stockmanship as a key factor in animal welfare and this code is an essential tool for everyone concerned with looking after ducks. All persons involved with the rearing and production of ducks should read it carefully and to bear its recommendations in mind at all times.

This code covers ducks of the Pekin and Mallard types and does not apply to Muscovies.

Introduction

1. The welfare of ducks can be safeguarded under a variety of management systems. The system employed should be appropriate to the health and behavioural and physiological needs of the ducks. This, together with facilities available and the skill of the stockkeeper, will determine the number of birds kept at any one time, and the way in which they are grouped.

2. Consideration should be given to the question of animal welfare before installing more complex or elaborate equipment than has previously been used. In general the greater the restriction imposed on the bird and the greater the complexity of the system or of the degree of control which is exercised over temperature, air flow or food supply, the less the bird is able to use its instinctive behaviour to modify the effect of unfavourable conditions and the greater the chance of suffering if mechanical or electrical failures occur. Thus systems involving a high degree of control over the environment should only be installed when conscientious staff skilled in both animal husbandry and the use of the equipment will always be available.

3. Large flocks can be managed successfully, but in general the larger the size of unit the greater the degree of skill and conscientiousness needed to safeguard welfare. The size of a unit should not be increased nor should a unit be set up unless it is reasonably certain that the stockkeeper in charge will be able to safeguard the welfare of the individual bird.

4. All stockkeepers should know the normal behaviour of ducks, watch closely for signs of distress or disease and, where necessary, take prompt remedial action.

5. The good stockkeeper will know the signs which indicate good health in ducks. He should be able to recognise impending trouble in its earliest stages and may often be able to identify the cause and put matters right immediately. If the cause is not obvious or if the stockkeeper's immediate action is not effective, veterinary or other expert advice should be obtained as soon as possible.

6. Important indications of health are alertness, clear bright eyes, good posture, vigorous movements if unduly disturbed, active feeding and drinking, normal feathering, clean and healthy skin, shanks and feet. Attention should be paid to any departure from the normal.

7. The early signs if ill-health may include changes in feed and water intake, in preening, in general activity, and diarrhoea (although ducks normally have watery faeces), inco-ordination and drooping of the eyelids. In laying birds there may also be a drop in egg-production, and changes in egg quality such as shell defects.

8. Ailing birds, and any birds suffering from injury such as open wounds, or fractures or from prolapse of the vent should be segregated and treated or, if necessary, be humanely killed without delay.

Housing

9. Advice on welfare aspects should be sought when new buildings are to be constructed or existing buildings modified.

10. Ventilation, heating, lighting, feeding, watering and all other equipment should be designed, sited and installed so as to avoid risk of injuring birds.

11. All floors, particularly slatted or metal mesh ones, should be designed, fitted and maintained so as to avoid injury or distress to the birds. Remedial action should be taken if either of these occurs.

12. Nest boxes and roosting areas should not be so high above floor level that birds have difficulty or risk injury in using them.

13. Adequate litter should be provided on solid floors and in nest boxes.

14. Accommodation should be designed and maintained so as to minimise discomfort, distress or injury to the birds.

15. The type and arrangements of accommodation should allow for efficient working and for each bird to be properly inspected.

16. Accommodation should be of sufficient height to allow standing birds free movement of the head and neck.

17. The front and sides of raised pens for ducklings should be kept properly adjusted so that birds have access to feed and water but cannot escape and fall to the floor.

Ventilation and temperature

18. Ventilation rates and house conditions should at all times be adequate to provide sufficient fresh air for the ducks. In particular, accumulations of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and dust should be avoided.

19. Excessive heat loss or gain in buildings should be avoided.

20. Care should be taken to protect confined birds from draughts in cold conditions.

21. Ducks should not be exposed to strong direct sunlight or hot surroundings long enough to cause heat stress as indicated by prolonged panting.

22. Young ducklings should not be subjected to conditions which cause either panting due to overheating or prolonged huddling and feather-ruffling due to under-heating. After about 1 to 2 weeks birds can tolerate a fairly wide range of temperatures, but every effort should be made to avoid creating conditions which will lead to chilling, huddling and subsequent smothering.

23. All accommodation should be so designed that even when fully stocked its ventilation is adequate to protect the birds from overheating under any weather conditions that can reasonably be foreseen.

Stocking rates

24 Irrespective of the type of enclosure or system of management used, all ducks should have sufficient room to be able to move about freely and to spread their wings at will.

25. It cannot be too strongly emphasised that birds kept under any system can be prone to stress, injury and disease if management and husbandry are not of a high standard. Within the present limits of scientific knowledge it is not possible to relate stocking rate to welfare in any simple manner. Stocking rate is only one aspect of a complex situation involving such things as breed, strain and type of bird, group size, temperature, ventilation, lighting and quality of housing. The observance of any particular rate cannot, by itself, ensure the welfare of the birds.

26. The following figures are a guide to the minimum available floor area per bird which is acceptable in most circumstances:

​Stocking rates for ducklings​ ​
​System and age of bird
​Maximum sotcking rates
​Qualifications
On slatted, perforated or metal mesh floors​
Day-old to 10 days50 ducklings per sq. m.
Floor area to include any area occupied by feeding and watering equipment
10 days to 3 weeks25 ducklings per sq. m.
3 weeks to 8 weeks8 ducklings per sq. m.
On solid floors (littered)​ ​
Day-old to 10 days
36 ducklings per sq. m.

Floor area to include any slatted, perforated or metal mesh area and any area occupied by feeding and watering equipment

10 days to 3 weeks
14 ducklings per sq. m.
3 weeks to 8 weeks
7 ducklings per sq. m.
In grass runs​ ​

3 weeks to 8 weeks

 

 

2,500 ducklings per hectare

 

In well-grassed runs this stocking rate could be increased to a maximum of 5,000 ducklings per hectare

1 hectare = 5.56 vergees

​Stocking rates for breeding ducks ​
System
Maximum stocking ratesQualifications
On slatted, perforated or metal mesh floors5 ducks per sq. m.

Floor area to include any area occupied by feeding and watering equipment and nest boxes

On solid floors (littered)3 ducks per sq. m.

Floor area to include any slatted, perforated or metal mesh area and any area occupied by feeding and watering equipment and nest boxes

In grass runs associated with housing on floors

4,000 ducks per hectare

Not applicable

27. If disease or vice becomes evident, expert qualified advice should be sought to deal with the problem. Stocking and ventilation rates should also be checked and variations in stocking and ventilation should be considered in order to minimise the likelihood of recurrence of the problem.

Management

28. Frequent inspection of the stock is essential because the condition and reactions of the birds are the main guides to their welfare. An inspection must be made at least daily in addition to the looking-over which birds receive during routine management work. Injured or dead birds should be removed promptly, as should individual sick birds.

29. It's desirable to establish a regular work routine. Care should be taken not to frighten the birds with sudden unaccustomed movement or noise, but without placing too much emphasis on quietness.

30. Adequate control measures should be taken to protect the birds from disturbance by rodents and other animals.

31. Mouldy litter should not be used. There should be frequent checks to ensure that litter does not become excessively wet or dry, or infested with mites or other harmful organisms.

32. Premises and equipment should be regularly cleansed. Thorough disinfection should be carried out at suitable times (for example, before restocking) to reduce the danger of continuing infection.

33. Vaccinations, injections and similar procedures should be undertaken by competent, trained operators. Care should be taken to avoid injury and unnecessary disturbance of the ducks.

34. A programme to control vermin, without endangering the birds, should be in place.

Bill trimming

35. Bill trimming should be carried out only when it is clear that more suffering would be caused in the flock if it were not done. It should be done by a skilled operator or under his supervision. If practised, only the rim at the front of the upper bill should be removed and before the birds leave the brooder or the rearing accommodation. Normally it need be done only once in the lifetime of the stock.

Dewinging

36. Dewinging, pinioning, notching or tendon severing or other operations which involve mutilation of wing tissues, are prohibited. When it is necessary to prevent flying the flight feathers of one wing may be clipped.

Feed and water

37. Birds should have easy access to adequate fresh feed each day, and have fresh water at all times. Care should be taken at any change of system to ensure that the birds find the feed and water points. Consideration should be given to the provision of water troughs which are deep enough to allow the ducks to get their heads completely under water.

38. Whatever feeding and drinking system is used sufficient trough space for feeding and drinking should be provided to prevent undue competition for feed or water. As a guide the minimum trough space should be:

​Minimum trough space per 100 ducks​ ​
Age
Feeding spaceDrinking space
Day-old chicks to 8 weeks0.5 metre0.5 metre
8 weeks old and over0.6 metre0.6 metre

39. Stale or contaminated feed or water should not be allowed to accumulate and should be replaced immediately. Efforts should be made to minimise the risk of drinking water freezing.

Emergencies and fire prevention

40. In the design of new buildings, or alterations of existing ones, there should be provision for livestock to be released and evacuated quickly in the case of an emergency. Materials used in construction should have sufficient fire resistance and adequate doors and other escape routes should be provided to enable an emergency procedure to be followed in the event of a fire. To reduce the risk to stock from fire and smoke, where possible the storage of straw should be separate to stock accommodation.

41. There is usually some warning of interruptions in the supply of feeding stuffs and, so far as possible, arrangements should be made to lay in adequate stocks of feed or water to offset the worst of such a contingency.

Transport and handling

42. The proper handling of ducks requires skill and it should be undertaken only by competent persons who have been appropriately trained. It should be carried out quietly and confidently, exercising care to avoid unnecessary struggling which could bruise or otherwise injure the ducks. Day-old and young ducklings should be picked up bodily in the palm of the hand. It may be necessary to catch older ducks by the neck and they should be supported either by taking the weight of the bird by a hand placed under its body, or by holding the bird with a hand on either side of its body with the wings in the closed position. Birds should never be carried by the legs.

43. Care must be taken in catching ducks to avoid creating panic and subsequent injury to or smothering of the birds.

Day-old ducklings

44. Ducklings for despatch should be healthy and vigorous, and should be placed in suitably ventilated boxes without overcrowding. Care should be taken to ensure adequate ventilation of the boxes, particularly when they are stacked, and to protect the ducklings from direct sunlight and cold draughts.

45. Packing materials used inside boxes should be dry and free from moulds.

46. Ducklings should be transferred to the brooders as soon as possible.

Growing and adult birds

47. The design, size and state of repair of any container used to carry ducks should allow them to be put in, conveyed and taken out injury. Care should also be taken when crates are loaded on to vehicles and in their transportation and unloading. Adequate ventilation for the birds is essential at all times.

48. Birds should be protected from bad weather and from excessively hot or cold conditions. They should not be allowed to become distressed (as indicated by prolonged panting) by being left in containers exposed to strong direct sunlight.

Additional recommendations: range birds

Management

49. Enclosed range areas should be used in rotation, and flocks should be moved before the land becomes contaminated with organisms that can cause or carry disease to an extent which could seriously prejudice the health of the birds. The time taken for land to become heavily contaminated depends on the type of land and the density of stocking. Portable houses should be moved regularly to avoid continuously muddy conditions. Drinking facilities should be moved every 1 or 2 days to avoid the immediate vicinity becoming contaminated.

50. Shade and shelter from extreme weather conditions should always be available. Windbreaks should be provided on exposed land. Water sprinklers may be useful in very hot weather.

Housing

51. When birds are transferred to range houses, precautions should be taken to avoid crowding and suffocation, particularly during the first few nights. Cannibalism is a danger under this system and birds should not be confined for too long during hours of daylight or subjected to direct sunlight during confinement.

Feed and Water

52. Feed and water should never be allowed to remain in a stale or contaminated condition. In freezing conditions, particular attention should be given to the provision of water.

Guinea pig

These recommendations include guinea pigs kept for breeding.

Housing

1. The environment should provide freedom of movement, food and water and the care which is appropriate to their health and wellbeing.

2. The animals must be able to stand up on their hind legs without their heads touching the roof, lie down and turn around.

3. Size, shape and fittings of pens, hutches and cages should be designed, as far as practicable, to meet the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals.

4. Housing pens must be kept dry and raised off the ground, free of dramatic temperature fluctuations and be adequately ventilated, but protected from draughts.

5. Cages, hutches or pens should be made of material that will not harm the animals, is durable and will withstand normal cleaning. They should be designed to minimise risk of injury with comfortable floors that permit easy removal of droppings.

6. Guinea pigs are best kept in hutches, with either large secure runs connected to them or separate secure pens for exercise. The hutch should have an enclosed solid sided nesting area for shelter, and a mesh fronted section. The flooring of the hutch should be smooth.

7. The recommended minimum size for a hutch is 0.9 meter 2 of floor space per adult guinea pig. A sow with a litter should be given a minimum of 1500centimeter 2 floor space.

8. Guinea pigs are social animals and, therefore, should be kept in groups of compatible individuals or in breeding pairs. Remember, a mixed pair will breed. Male guinea pigs may fight, but aggression between the opposite sexes or amongst a group of females is uncommon. To prevent fighting, males kept in groups should have been raised together since weaning. Also, a father and a son may be kept together without fighting. Care should be taken to monitor and prevent aggression and to separate individuals if necessary.

9. It is best not to keep guinea pigs with rabbits, as cross infection can occur. Also, there may be bullying by either species, but especially by the rabbit, as rabbits are naturally dominant. To minimise the stress levels of guinea pigs, they should not be exposed to other rodents, rabbits, dogs or cats.

10. Environmental enrichment, appropriate to the animal's needs, will allow animals to carry out a range of normal behaviours. Restricted environments can lead to behavioural and physiological abnormalities.

11. A secure, private place for raising young, such as a nest or secluded, sheltered den area, should be provided. Nesting or bedding material also allows the animal to partially control its own immediate environment. For example, noise, temperature and humidity.

12. Suitable clean, comfortable bedding material must be provided for breeding animals to a depth of 2 to 5cm. Bedding materials should provide insulation but cause no hazard to the young or adult animals.

13. Good quality hay can be used for bedding. In addition to the nutritional value to the animal, it provides a form of environmental enrichment, as guinea pigs enjoy burrowing in large quantities of loose hay. Good quality straw may also be used for bedding.

14. All hutches and cages, as well as the food and water, must be protected from contamination by wild rodents and insects.

Temperature

15. The optimal temperature range for housing breeding guinea pigs is 16 to 24 degree Celsius. Temperatures should be maintained in both winter and summer. In the very cold winter months, guinea pigs should be brought indoors.

16. Temperature should be controlled to prevent undue fluctuations which may cause unnecessary stress or welfare problems to the animals.

17. If good temperature control is not maintained, the breeding performance of guinea pigs will be impaired. Pups are at risk of fatal chilling at temperatures less than 17 degree Celsius. Low temperatures, as well as high humidity, will also promote respiratory disease.

Lighting

18. During daylight hours, light may be provided to exercise and sleeping areas so that all parts are clearly visible. A proportion of this light should be natural light. Adequate light must always be available to inspect the guinea pigs.

19. Guinea pigs housed indoors should be provided with a minimum of 10 to 12 hours light per day.

20. Care should be taken to ensure that animals are not placed in direct sunlight.

Ventilation

21. Premises and accommodation must be well ventilated to maintain suitable air quality.

Noise

22. Guinea pigs are easily startled and may injure themselves if they panic. Care should be taken to avoid sudden loud noises near the animals.

Management

Feed

23. The diet should satisfy the nutritional requirement of the animals.

24. Guinea pigs are one of the few creatures, like humans, who cannot make their own vitamin C. So, it is vital that they have adequate vitamin C in their diet to prevent illness. Do not give them rabbit food as it does not have adequate vitamin C.

25. Guinea pigs have chisel-like incisor teeth which grow continually and are kept to a uniform length by lots and lots of gnawing each day. It is important your guinea pig's daily diet includes hay and fresh vegetables. To give your guinea pig an interesting, appealing diet, give a mix of pellets and vegetables and always provide good quality hay.

26. Guinea pigs need feeding twice a day and all food bowls and utensils should be cleaned daily.

Water

27. Clean fresh drinking water must be available to all animals at all times.

28. Water can be provided in water bottles or other suitable containers (such as ceramic bowls) that will not easily tip over and spill.

29. All water containers should be cleaned and refilled daily with fresh water.

Handling

30. Time should be allocated for the grooming, if appropriate, and handling of the animals.

31. Guinea pigs can be quite nervous and are easily stressed, so care should be taken when handling them. They will become accustomed to regular, gentle handling and be less nervous.

Hygiene

32. Premises, accommodation and equipment must be cleaned frequently.

Animal health

33. In addition to being given suitable food, drink and bedding material, guinea pigs should be checked on at suitable intervals throughout the day. Guinea pigs may be kept as pets or as part of a business. Whatever the circumstances, it is important for the person looking after the animals to be able to recognise signs of ill health or abnormality.

34. Mating of females should be delayed until the animals are 12 to 14 weeks old, when they reach a body weight of 400 to 600 grams.

35. Virgin females should be mated before 6 to 8 months of age. In the last weeks of pregnancy there are changes in preparation for giving birth. These include gradual relaxation of ligaments and separation of the pelvic symphysis. If the breeding of a female has been delayed such that she is over 9 to 12 months of age, separation may not occur and the sow may not be able to give birth normally.

36. Females older than 8 months of age which have never bred should never be housed with an intact boar.

37. Boars should not be bred until they weigh 650 grams at approximately 10 to 16 weeks of age.

38. While guinea pigs may remain fertile for up to 4 years, the optimal breeding life of the guinea pig ends at 2 years of age. Generally, litter sizes decrease and reproductive complications begin to increase after 18 to 28 months of age.

39. Commercially, guinea pigs are generally bred as breeding pairs or in harems.

40. Young animals must be maintained in groups of similar size.

41. Pregnant females should be separated from other animals late in pregnancy and housed together with their young until weaning.

42. In harem mating systems, large pups will suckle sows which have just given birth and deprive their young of milk. Consequently, weanlings should be promptly removed from intact breeding groups, or sows with nursing pups should be isolated in a nursery cage.

43. Exercise is important for pregnant sows to prevent pregnancy toxaemia and to maintain body condition. Exercise can be encouraged by keeping the sow in a spacious pen. However, towards the end of pregnancy when the female may be double her normal body weight, food and water should be kept in close proximity to the sow.

44. Pups should be weaned at 150 to 240 grams body weight or 15 to 28 days of age. It is important that female offspring be weaned by 21 days of age and isolated from boars, because they may come into season by 4 to 5 weeks of age and may breed.

Safety

45. Accommodation must be secure to ensure the safety of the animals.

Disease

46. All reasonable precautions should be taken to prevent and control the spread of infectious or contagious diseases amongst guinea pigs.

47. Advice from a veterinary surgeon must be sought where a guinea pig shows signs of parasites, disease, injury or illness. A competent person must then ensure that this veterinary advice is followed.

48. Facilities for isolation should be available when required. An adequate area to prevent the spread of infectious disease between the isolation case and any other guinea pigs must be provided. Hygiene precautions, such as hand washing, must be taken after leaving the isolation facilities and before handling other guinea pigs.

Records

49. Effective and accurate breeding, health and disease recording systems should be maintained.

50. Accurate records should be kept for each breeding guinea pig providing the identification of the sow, date of birth, address where she is kept, breed, date of mating and details of sire. Licensed guinea pig breeders must also keep a record of litters, including the sex of the pups, date of birth, weight, description and total number in the litter. The record must also show the details of sale and name and address of purchaser.

51. It is recommended that all guinea pigs are microchipped by a veterinary surgeon.

Staff training

52. When staff are employed, a written training policy should be provided. Staff training records should be kept.

Emergencies and fire prevention

53. Appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of the guinea pigs in case of fire or other emergencies.

Transport

54. All vehicles must be secure and should not be left unattended when transporting guinea pigs. Vehicles use for transportation should have adequate ventilation.

55. All appropriate steps should be taken to ensure that the guinea pigs are provided with suitable food, drink and bedding material when being transported. This is especially important if confinement is to be prolonged. Time in transit should be kept to a minimum.

56. Animals that are incompatible should not be transported together.

57. The number of animals within any one container must be such that animals travel in comfort with due regard to likely conditions throughout the journey.

58. Animals that are to be transported should be in good health. Sick or injured animals should only be transported for purpose of treatment or diagnosis.

Horse

General management

1. The basic requirement for the welfare of horses is a husbandry system appropriate to the health and, so far as practicable, the behavioural needs of the animals and a high standard of care.

Number of horses

2. Horses, being herd animals, prefer to live in social groups and appear to enjoy human contact. If kept singly, they require frequent contact with, and supervision by, the owner or person in charge. They should always be treated as individuals, even when kept in large groups. When forming new groups, care should be taken to avoid fighting and stress, particularly if adult animals are mixed.

3. Although large groups can be managed successfully, in general the larger the size the greater the degree of skill and conscientiousness needed to safeguard welfare. The size should not be increased nor should a large group be set up unless the person in charge will be able to safeguard the welfare of the individual animals.

General supervision

4. Every person responsible for the supervision of horses must be able to recognise signs of ill health, have knowledge of basic equine first aid, and have a veterinarian to diagnose and treat any serious illness or injury. Plans should be made to ensure horses can be attended to promptly in the event of:

  • accident
  • fire
  • other emergency

Horsemanship

5. Horsemanship is a key factor in ensuring that welfare needs are met. No matter how acceptable a system may be in principle, without competent horsemanship, the welfare of the horse(s) cannot be adequately protected. Training plays a vital role in the development of the horseman's awareness of welfare requirements.

Handling horses

6. Horses require calm, sympathetic and competent handling. Horses respond best to firm but gently approach and to rewards for correct responses. Handlers should think ahead to ensure that horses are not panicked by unexpected occurrences. Abnormal physiological and behavioural responses to handling, training and confinement (such as the development of vices) should be recognised and measures taken to correct them. Discipline, if appropriate, must be administered immediately following an act of misconduct, and must be no more severe than is necessary and reasonable to achieve the trainer's objectives. Similarly, any restraint used to assist normal management or treatment of the horse should be the most mild and effective available and should be applied for the minimum required period.

Training, riding and driving horses

7. Every person training, riding or driving horses must be competent in the activity being carried out or supervised by an experienced horseman or horsewoman. The horse should be used in accordance with its age, level of fitness and health. It is important to recognise the different behaviour patterns of horses and adapt training methods to suit the individual. Even well-trained animals can be over-ridden. Riders and drivers must ensure their horses do not suffer avoidable injury, distress or illness.

8. Training methods which involve cruelly ill- treating horses are unacceptable. Whips and spurs should be used on horses to reinforce correctly applied aids (voice, hands, seat and legs) when the horse has failed to respond. Horses must never be struck around the head or genitals with any whip, lead or other object. Spurs should not be used as punishment and must not be used in a manner which causes skin damage.

Saddlery and equipment

9. Harness, saddlery and training aids used for handling, riding, driving and schooling horses must be free of features that are likely to cause unnecessary pain suffering or distress to the horse.

10. Saddlery, harness and equipment should be maintained in clean, supple condition, free from cracks and other features likely to cause chafing and sores. Bits should contain no rough or sharp surfaces which may cause damage to the mouth.

Grass-kept horses

Supervision of horses on grass

11. The frequency and level of supervision of horses should take into account factors such as stocking rates, availability of feed, type of horses kept (breed, age and disposition), security of grazing area and reliability of water supply. It is therefore recommended that horses at grass must be inspected at least once a day.

12. Many fields will contain muddy areas particularly around gateways and, feed and water troughs. It is not acceptable for an animal to be kept in an area which is totally covered with mud and/or water to the extent that the animal cannot rest on dry ground. Enforced standing in extensive wet and/or muddy areas can lead to skin and hoof problems and is therefore a potential welfare problem.

Stocking density

13. The stocking density depends on the suitability of the grazing area (ground conditions, time of year) and the skills of the keeper with regard to both horse care and pasture management. Stocking densities can increase as grass growth permits. During winter and dry summers, supplementary feed may be required to maintain good body condition. Poaching of the ground in wet weather or the use of paddocks for exercising (riding) damages the pasture and reduces the grazing capacity.

14. Overcrowding leads to competition for food, water and space and may lead to fighting and subsequent injury. Sufficient space must be available to permit incompatible animals to be segregated and to enable animals to escape bullying.

Supplementary feeding

15. Grazing may ensure an adequate intake of roughage and minerals. If grazing is poor or limited, supplementary feeding may be required. Horses should be moved at appropriate intervals to clean pastures to control parasite infestation. This should be combined with a regular parasite control programme advised by a veterinary surgeon.

Pasture management

16. Horses are selective grazers and unless effective pasture management is employed, pasture can rapidly become "horse sick". Rough areas soiled with dung and areas of weeds reduce the grazing available as the contaminated area increases. In this state, the pasture is of little value and there is a high risk of parasitic worm problems. Over grazing also depletes some nutrients, which in turn leads to poor pasture quality and growth rate reducing the ability of the pasture to recover.

Poisonous plants and dangerous objects

17. Horses at pasture may be at risk from poisonous plants especially at the times of year when grass is in short supply. Paddocks should be kept free of plants, such as ragwort, which are poisonous to horses.

18. There should be no sharp projections or fittings likely to cause injury in or around fields.

Shelters

19. Some form of shelter should be provided for all horses.

20. Animals which are used to being stabled throughout the winter should not suddenly be turned out into severe weather conditions.

Provision of shelters

21. Horses should be provided with access to effective shelter or be suitably rugged to protect them against cold, wet, windy weather and to provide shade and protection from flies.

22. Where natural shelter belts and trees do not provide protection artificial shelter should be provided.

Construction of shelters

23. Shelters must be soundly constructed with no surfaces or projections likely to cause injury to horses. The shelter should be constructed to shield the horse against prevailing winds. The roof should allow adequate ventilation and sufficient height to provide clearance for the horse with its head raised.

24. Each horse must have adequate room to lie down, stand up and turn around. There should be a clean and dry area for the horse to lie down, the surface of which protects the horse from abrasions and capped elbows and hocks.

25. Field shelters are normally open fronted to enable free access and to prevent horses becoming trapped or cornered by dominant horses.

Use of rugs and accessories

26. Rugs are a form of shelter and should be used on "thin-skinned", clipped and old horses to keep them warm and dry during cold wet weather. If worn during wet weather, rugs must be maintained in a waterproof condition. A spare rug should be available so that rugs can be changed and dried out. Rugs should be the correct size for the horse and correctly fitted to prevent rubbing, hair loss and abrasions.

27. Rugs should be checked daily for rubbing and to enable observation of changes in body condition. This is particularly important with older horses that often lose condition over the winter months. All rugs must be removed at leased weekly for airing and the removal of loose hair and caked-on dirt from both the cloth and straps.

28. Hoods should only be worn if entirely necessary and must be the correct fit. Some hoods must be attached to the rug or surcingle, to prevent them from slipping forward over the horses' head. It's advised that hoods should only be worn by horses that are turned out for short periods where some degree of supervision can be maintained.

Fencing and gateways

29. The suitability of fencing varies according to the breed, sex and disposition of the horses, as well as stocking density and paddock size. Fencing should be strong and high enough to prevent horses from escaping. It should be designed, constructed and maintained to avoid injury, with no sharp projections pointing inwards.

30. Fences should be readily visible to horses and properly maintained. The ideal fence for horses is the post-and-rail type, with rails treated or painted with non-toxic preparations. A popular alternative, which also provides a good visual barrier, is a single top rail attached to a conventional post-and-wire fence. Barbed wire, netting and narrow gauge high-tensile steel wire, can cause severe injury to horses and should be avoided as should internal fence-stays, which can be a cause of injury.

31. Electric fencing is popular but horses require supervision until they have become accustomed to the fence. Temporary internal subdivisions may be created quickly with electrified tape and fibreglass standards. A single electrified wire or tape attached to outriggers on conventional post and rail and wire fences provides an effective barrier to prevent contact between animals in adjacent paddocks and the chewing of rails

32. Electric fences should be designed, installed and maintained to ensure contact does not cause more than momentary discomfort to the horse. Electric mesh type fences are not suitable for horses. All power units for electric fences must be effectively earthed to prevent shorts and electricity being conducted in unwanted places. For example, gates and water troughs.

33. Gateways should be designed to allow for the easy and safe passage of horses. Gates must be securely fastened to prevent escape and injury to the animals.

Water requirements

34. A horse requires, on average, 20 to 40 litres (5 to 10 gallons) of water a day depending on the work it is doing, its diet and environmental factors. This requirement increases in hot weather, following strenuous exercise and when feed stuffs with a low water content are being fed or when grazing is dry.

35. It is essential that all horses have constant access to clean fresh water or that adequate water is made available to them on a regular basis throughout the day.

Provision of water at grass

36. Clean, fresh drinking water should always be available to horses in grazing paddocks. Water troughs maybe self-filling (connected to a mains water supply or bowser) and should be easy to drain and clean. Alternatively, an adequate supply of water must be provided on a regular basis to avoid thirst. Natural water sources such as streams are not generally considered to be satisfactory and an alternative water supply should be provided. Water troughs and containers must be kept clean.

37 When ice forms it must be broken at least twice a day without fail during freezing conditions. The water supply should also be checked and provision made to fill troughs by alternative means (hose, barrel or buckets) if necessary.

Situation of troughs

38. Ideally troughs should be situated in or along a fence line in a well-drained area of the field, away from gateways (to minimise the problems of poaching) and not under trees where leaves could soil the water.

39. It must not be possible for a horse to become trapped or cornered in the area of the trough.

40. The trough should be securely fixed at a convenient height to allow horses of different size to drink comfortably. It should not be possible for the horse to paw the water or dislodge the trough and knock it over. It's essential that there are no sharp edges, protruding corners or exposed taps. Taps and fittings where present, should be safely boxed in.

Tethering

41. Tethering is not recommended as there is a high risk of injury to horses.

Housing systems

General management

42. In general, the greater the intensity of the management system and degree of confinement, the greater the need for adequate provision of facilities and care to ensure that the horse's welfare needs are met. These needs include adequate provision of:

  • feed
  • water
  • comfort
  • exercise

Supervision of stabled horses

43. The frequency and level of supervision required for stabled horses should consider factors such as the:

  • housing system
  • degree of confinement
  • type of horse kept (for example, breed, age and disposition)
  • provision of necessities (for example, bedding, water and feed)

Ventilation and respiratory hazards

44. Airborne contaminants such as dust. from bedding, feed and scurf, and ammonia fumes, from soiled bedding, can pose a significant respiratory hazard for housed horses.

45. Stabling must be well ventilated to prevent a build-up of dust and fumes that could be detrimental to respiratory health. As far as possible, dust-free bedding should be used and feedstuffs should also be dust-extracted. Horses are more sensitive than humans to the effects of ammonia fumes and, therefore, stale bedding should be removed at least once a day and preferably twice a day where horses are being stabled for long periods. Where deep-litter systems are used and for example when loose-housing groups of horses, adequate drainage and a supply of dry top-up bedding is essential.

46. Ventilation must provide good air circulation without directing draughts on to the horses. With adequate ventilation and freedom from draughts, the air temperature of the building should not vary significantly from ambient, for example that outside in the open air. In cold weather, to maintain body warmth and condition, the horse should be provided with extra feed and clothing. Windows or top doors should not be closed as this reduces ventilation.

Bedding material

47. Adequate suitable bedding is necessary to provide warmth and protection from draughts, to prevent injury and jarring of the legs, to enable the horse to lie down in comfort, to reduce the risk of the horse becoming cast and to encourage the horse to stale.

48. Bedding material must be non-toxic and provide effective drainage or be absorbent, to maintain a dry bed and assist in keeping the air fresh.

Water supply

49. Sufficient clean water to prevent thirst must be provided. A horse's average daily water requirement (20 to 40 litres) depends on the individual, on work done and on environmental factors (such as air temperature and humidity). Stabled horses on diets of hay and concentrate rations, generally have a greater water requirement than those grazing on fresh herbage.

50. Fresh water can be supplied in buckets or automatic drinking bowls.

51. Water containers must be kept clean and positioned where they do not become clogged with food or bedding material. Buckets may be clipped to the wall or placed in an old car tyre, to prevent them from being knocked over. Buckets should be emptied, cleaned and refilled at least twice each day and topped up as necessary. Automatic drinkers should be well maintained, by daily cleaning and testing, and positioned at a safe height to prevent the horse injuring itself.

Provision of feed

52. Hay racks and nets should be positioned and designed to avoid the risk of injury, particularly to the horse's eyes. Nets must be placed where feet cannot be caught in the mesh. Feed containers should be kept clean and uneaten rations removed, to discourage rodents and prevent the horse from eating soiled and stale feed.

53. Regular feeding times are essential to prevent stress, impatience and boredom, which could lead to abnormal behaviour and the development of stable vices. When horses are fed in groups, there should be sufficient trough space or feeding points to avoid undue competition for food.

Housing

54. Advice on welfare aspects should be sought when constructing or altering buildings to provide stabling for horses. The main considerations in planning the construction and layout of stables are the safety and welfare of the horses, by provision of adequate drainage and ventilation and ease of access.

General construction

55. The building must be constructed soundly, with no exposed surfaces or projections likely to cause injury.

56. Floors must be non-slip, designed to provide good drainage away from the horse. Dirt floors must be maintained by regularly filling any holes which develop.

57. Roofs must be high enough to provide good air circulation and with a minimum clear space of 2 to 3 feet (60 to 90 centimetres) above the poll of the horse in its normal standing position. There should be adequate lighting, to permit the inspection and safe handling of the animals.

58. Windows or ventilators should be fitted to provide adequate ventilation, without directing draughts on to the horses or creating draughts at floor level. Fixtures and fitting to which horses have access should be free of sharp edges or projections and should be positioned to avoid injury. Grills should be fitted over windows to avoid the risk of breakages or injury. Surfaces should be treated with non-toxic paints or wood preservatives.

Segregation and individual spatial requirements

59. In a loose box, the horse must have sufficient room to lie down, stand up and turn around without the risk of injury. The recommended minimum box sizes are 12 feet by 12 feet for horses and 10 feet by 10 feet for ponies. Boxes for foaling, and for mares with foal at foot, should be a minimum of 15 feet by 15 feet. Loose boxes smaller than these recommendations may increase the risk of injury to both the horse and handler, particularly when young and untrained animals are stabled.

60. Stalls must provide sufficient space for a horse to be led in and turned around and to stand up and lie down (on its brisket) without risk of injury. The recommended minimum stall width is 5 feet and the minimum length is 8 feet. The aisle or alleyway behind the stalls should be sufficiently wide, approximately 6 to 8 feet, to enable horses to be lead safely past stalled horses.

61. The space allowances for communally or loose-housing horses, should be appropriate for the age, size, number and type of horses. The stocking density should allow each horse sufficient individual space, similar to guidelines for loose-box housing. For example, approximately 100 to 120 square feet per animal.

62. Special care must be taken to separate incompatible individuals, such as entire males (colts and stallions), rigs and mares heavily in foal or with foal at foot.

Housing systems

Loose boxes (standard stable)

63. Loose boxes are commonly used for the overnight or long-term accommodation of horses. Each horse accommodated in a loose box must have sufficient room to lie down, readily rise and turn around in comfort.

64. An adequate layer of bedding should be provided and in any case, when a horse is kept for more than consecutive 6 hours in a loose box with a concrete or similarly hard floor. On dirt floors, bedding must be provided if the horse is to be housed for more than 8 hours.

Stalls

65. Stalls must be constructed soundly, with no exposed surfaces or projections likely to cause injury to horses. They must provide adequate room for horses to be led in and turned around. Horses must be confined within stalls in a manner which prevents them causing injury to themselves and to adjacent animals.

66. Each horse should be secured by a weighted rope, running through a chest-high ring at the back of the stall, attached to a well-fitting head-collar. The rope should be of sufficient length to enable the horse to amble backwards and forwards within the stall and to lie down comfortably without restriction. When the rope is correctly attached, the horse should be able to stand diagonally within the stall but not be able to turn around to face the front of the stall. A suitable block should be fitted to the end of the rope to take up any slack and prevent the horse from becoming entangled.

Communal or loose housing

67. Groups of horses can be stabled together in communal barns. Loose housing is often the most practical system for managing young-stock or brood mares that have already formed social groups. Loose housing is economical and labour saving but care must be taken to ensure that all individuals fair equally well.

68. Segregation of incompatible animals is particularly important where communal or loose housing systems are used and, under such systems, horses should not be mixed if any one individual is aggressive to others; nor should hind-shod horses be mixed with unshod.

69. The introduction of a new horse or horses to an existing group can result in bullying. This may be alleviated by increasing the space allowance or by penning the new animal adjacent to the existing group for a short period.

General safety

70. Fire is always a threat in stable areas. Storing damp straw, hay and used bedding in or near stables is a common cause of fires and should be avoided. Highly inflammable liquids must not be stored in or close to stables where horses are accommodated. Smoking in stable areas should not be permitted. All equipment and services, including drinkers, ventilating fans, heating and lighting units, fire extinguishers and alarm systems, should be kept clean, inspected regularly and kept in good working order. A residual circuit breaker should be installed.

Health

General management

71. The keeper should know the normal behaviour of horses and signs which indicate good health. These include good appetite, alertness, good coat condition, absence of lameness, firm droppings and no visible wounds, abscesses or injuries. Horses should be inspected regularly and particular attention should be paid to their feet. Preventative control of internal parasites, such as roundworms and tapeworms is essential and a programme should be discussed with your veterinary surgeon.

72. When horses become ill, the cause should be identified and appropriate action taken. Veterinary advice should be obtained if initial first aid or treatment is not effective or the horse appears to be seriously ill or in pain.

Preventive treatments

73. The health of the horse should be safeguarded by the use of preventive measures such as routine parasite control and vaccination programmes based on veterinary advice.

74. Attention to grooming will help identify parasitic and skin problems at an early stage. Horses in work should be regularly groomed and washed after strenuous work to help maintain their skin and coat in a healthy condition. Unless they are rugged, horses at grass should not be groomed excessively as this will remove grease from the coat which is the horses natural waterproofing and essential to help keep the horse warm and dry.

75. Whenever an infectious disease is suspected a veterinary surgeon should be called immediately. To prevent disease spread, affected horses must be isolated until a veterinary surgeon considers the infectious period has passed. Contaminated equipment and facilities should be disinfected with an effective product before re-use with other horses.

76. All horses have worms and, if left untreated or if there is a significant worm burden, the horse will not only lose condition but serious internal damage may be caused resulting in colic and other disorders.

77. Worms can be controlled by a combination of good pasture management and regular worming with effective treatments. The frequency of treatment should follow veterinary advice.

Flies and external parasites

78. Flies can cause a great deal of irritation to horses particularly during the summer. Fly fringes, masks, repellents and insecticide creams should be used to alleviate the fly problem.

79. Lice cause itching and discomfort to horses. Infestations are more evident in the winter months when the coat is long. The irritation causes the horse to rub and bite itself creating bald or sore patches and the coat becomes dull and scurvy. Lice should be treated using an authorised product when signs are first found.

Skin conditions

80. Skin conditions such as mud fever, ringworm and sweet itch must be treated effectively. Your veterinary surgeon will advise.

Care of teeth

81. Horses with worn or abnormal teeth are unable to chew their food properly, resulting in poor digestion. Common signs of this are:

  • half chewed food dropping out of the mouth
  • poor condition and lack of energy
  • whole grains, such as oats, in the droppings
  • avoidance behaviour, associated with the bit
  • failing to respond to pressure on the reins

82. In the mature horse, sharp and uneven edges may develop on the outer edges of the upper teeth and on the inner edges of the lower molars. These should be evenly filed by a veterinary surgeon, or qualified equine dental technician.

83. Horse's teeth should be examined at least annually. The period should be reduced to 6 months when concentrates or grains are fed regularly as a large portion of the ration.

Hoof care

84. When unshod, hooves should be trimmed as required to maintain a healthy hoof. Horses ridden or driven on roads or hard, rough surfaces must be correctly shod by a farrier on a regular basis. Hooves should be examined daily for signs of:

  • injury and other abnormalities
  • loose shoes
  • impacted foreign material

85. Where abnormal heat or painful pressure points are found in the hoof, the cause should be investigated by either a competent farrier or veterinary surgeon. Loose shoes and those with risen clenches should be promptly removed to prevent possible foot injury. Shoes should be removed and adjusted or replaced approximately every 6 weeks unless a farrier or veterinary surgeon has instructed otherwise.

Feeding horses

Horses' natural feeding habits

86. An understanding of feeding habits and digestive function is essential to ensure health and satisfaction in grazing and stabled horses.

87. Horses are continuous or 'trickle' feeders, with a comparatively small stomach capacity for short-term food storage and minimal digestive action. Horses normally consume their daily feed intake over 16 to 20 hours when foraging naturally, therefore, when stabled or where supplementary feeding is necessary, they require small but frequent feeds.

88. In its natural state, the horse eats a variety of forages (mainly grasses) to meet its nutritional needs. The horse has, therefore, adapted to relatively low energy and protein diet to meet its maintenance requirements.

Nutritional requirements

89. The horse requires sufficient feed to provide nutrients and energy for maintenance of proper body function and condition. Additional feed is required to meet a horse's activity requirements for work, growth, pregnancy and lactation. Both maintenance and activity requirements must be provided to maintain body weight and condition.

90. Maintenance feed is the amount required to maintain the horse at a constant, healthy body condition when at rest i.e. the work required of the horse is no greater in terms of physical activity than that expected of a healthy horse grazing freely in a paddock.

91. If fed to appetite, the average horse will consume 2% of its bodyweight, as dry matter, to meet daily maintenance requirements. Regular condition scoring or weighing will help establish any individual variation required around the 2% bodyweight guideline.

92. Individual horses have varying digestive capabilities and these affect maintenance requirements. The horse's temperament and metabolic rate must also be taken into account, because nervous highly strung horses and those with a high metabolic rate utilise far more energy than quiet horses of the same bodyweight. Periods of cold weather may significantly increase a horse's maintenance needs.

93. When a horse is working, its feed demands increase and a pasture-only diet may not be sufficient to meet the increased needs. Forage takes a long time to digest and the horse may be unable physically to eat enough to sustain its energy needs, consequently, supplementary feeding in the form of grains or concentrates is required.

94. Elderly, sick or injured horses may have special feed requirements and veterinary advice should be sought to devise a suitable ration.

Practical feeding

95. Changes in diet should be made gradually with no sudden increases in the concentrate or energy content of the ration. To avoid causing metabolic disorders, horses should not be fed a full-grain ration on the evening before, or on, rest days.

96. Horses should be fed plenty roughage and only sufficient concentrates to supply energy relevant to the level of fitness and the type of work done. The ration should be balanced for the individual horse's requirements, and the roughage content should not fall below 25% of the total ration.

97. Horses should be fed little and often. The ration should be divided into at least 2 separate meals and fed at regular times. It should be well mixed and freshly prepared before each feed. Succulents, such as carrots, are a beneficial and appetising addition to the daily ration.

98. To aid digestion and to avoid digestive upset, horses should not be worked on a full stomach nor should they be watered immediately after feeding. Only good-quality feeds should be fed. Feeding utensils should be kept clean. Food should be stored to prevent deterioration and contamination. Inferior, dusty, mouldy or stale left-over feed must not be fed.

99. The diet should be palatable, and nutritious. Good feeding practices should be complemented with good husbandry, such as hygiene, regular worming, care of teeth and adequate exercise to ensure the health and welfare of the animal.

Importance of water

100. Water is an essential daily requirement to ensure proper body functioning and every horse must have access to a sufficient supply of fresh, clean water.

101. If overheated and blowing immediately after exercise, horses must not be given access to cold drinking water; they should first be allowed to cool down, to avoid the risk of colic. Electrolyte supplements can be added to their usual water supply to enable the horse to replace fluid and body salt balance.

Herbage

102. Due to the seasonal growing cycle of grasses and clovers, the nutritional value of pasture changes throughout the year. These changes should be recognised and accounted for in determining the overall food requirement.

Conserved forage

103. There are 3 types of conserved forages:

  • hays
  • silage
  • haylage

104. The quality of conserved forage depends on the time of cutting, the weather conditions, the method of conservation and the processing involved. All conserved forage fed to horses must be good quality, to supply nutritional requirements and avoid health problems. It should be:

  • clean (free from soil, debris and poisonous plants)
  • smell fresh
  • free from dust and mould

Concentrate feeds

105. Cereals (barley, oats) or compound feeds (commercially blended nuts, cubes or mixes) provide a concentrated form of energy and nutrients to meet extra energy needs. Grains can be processed (heat-treated, crushed or rolled) to improve digestibility, however, processing may reduce the feed's nutritional value.

106. To avoid digestive problems, adequate levels of roughage should be fed. Consideration should be given to bulking-out, by adding bran or chaff in addition to providing fibre in the form of conserved forage.

107. When feeding concentrates, they should always be measured by weight rather than volume as there are marked differences in densities, not only between types of grain but also within different consignments of the same grain.

Quality of feeds

108. When selecting suitable feeds for horses, whether to provide the total ration or a supplement to grazing, it is important that only good quality feeds are fed in sufficient quantities to ensure that the horses thrive.

109. Feed should be correctly processed, stored and handled to prevent spoiling prior to feeding and ensure the nutritional value is maintained. If feed deteriorates during storage or is of sub-standard quality it should not be fed.

Digestibility of feeds

110. The digestibility or nutritive value obtained from feed stuffs is influenced by the fibre content and processing of feeds, the rate of intake and amount of feed consumed, the efficiency of the horses' digestive system (chewing, breakdown and absorption) and the horse level of physical activity.

Feeding-related problems

111. Several ailments may be directly related to or influenced by incorrect feeding or diet. Many problems and common disorders related to feeding result from boredom due to confinement and irregular feeding times.

112. Horses may develop bad habits at feeding times, leading to wastage of feed, digestive upsets and potential injury to handlers from impatient or aggressive behaviour.

113. Attempts should be made to recognise and discourage vices, as far as possible, by alleviating boredom and stress associated with confinement and controlled feeding.

114. Horses are susceptible to digestive disorders (colic, diarrhoea, constipation) and metabolic conditions (laminitis, azoturia) as a result of incorrect nutrients or feeding practices. Veterinary attention must be sought if the horse show signs of abdominal pain or signs of muscle spasms (tying-up) and lameness or heat in the limbs.

115. Some horses, particularly ponies, are able to utilise energy in feeds very efficiently and can suffer from severe energy overloading. This is one of the causes of a common and crippling disease, laminitis. Other causes and predisposing factors include stress, a sudden increase in work, excessive concussion, and drinking large amounts of cold water when hot. Susceptible horses and ponies should have restricted access to spring and autumn pasture and grains. Low energy forages such as hay should be fed.

116. Horses should not be permitted to become over-fat. Control of overweight horses using starvation diets is unacceptable. These horses must be supplied with a balanced reduction diet of food and water.

117. Neglect, lack of nutrients, insufficient quantity or quality of feed, serious illness or disorders affecting the horses ability to utilise food i.e. bad teeth or severe worm burdens, can result in serious loss in body condition. Horse can rapidly deteriorate in condition, becoming weak and thin. Horses must always be observed and changes made to the ration if the animal begins to lose weight or condition. Veterinary advice must be sought in all cases of unexplained or rapid weight loss.

Humane destruction

118. It may be necessary, in the event of incurable illness, old age or permanent unsoundness or, more suddenly, as a result of an accident, to arrange the humane destruction of a horse.

119. It is the responsibility of the owner to be fully informed on the methods and welfare considerations of humane destruction, in order to prevent the horse suffering unnecessary pain and distress.

Welfare considerations

120. The horse's welfare must always come first. Therefore, in the interests of the horse all owners should give the issue their full consideration, well before the time comes to make a decision.

Serious injury, terminal illness or chronic conditions

121. Where, in the opinion of a veterinary surgeon, a horse does not respond to treatment for any serious injury or condition involving significant pain, or where a horse is in such a condition that it would be cruel to keep it alive, the animal must be destroyed humanely, without unreasonable delay.

Permanent unsoundness, end of usefulness or old age

122. In a non-emergency situation, where a horse is permanently unsound or has a recurring or progressively degenerative condition, a rational decision must be made with due regard for the horse's future and welfare.

123. When a horse reaches the end of its active working life, or is elderly, consideration must be given to whether the horse can be provided with a good quality of life in retirement or whether it would be kinder to have the horse painlessly destroyed. The long-term interests and welfare of the horse must outweigh every other consideration.

Methods of humane destruction

124. Horses may be destroyed only by a veterinary surgeon (using lethal injection or by shooting) or by the States Slaughterman (by shooting only).

Transporting horses

125. Horses are frequently transported within, on to and off the Island. The following recommendations ensure the protection of the welfare of horses during transport by road including transit in a vehicle which is driven or towed on and off a roll-on roll-off sea-faring vessel. Commercial Transporters must be authorised by the States Veterinary Officer to comply with current EU Regulation.

Attendants

126. The person in charge must ensure transport is undertaken in accordance with the law. During transport the attendant may be the driver of the vehicle. When, because of time or distance, a single driver cannot maintain proper care of the horses, the presence of a second attendant is necessary.

Vehicle maintenance

127. A poorly driven or badly maintained horse box or trailer, with inadequate accommodation can lead to extreme stress and injury for horses in transit. Horse boxes, trailers and towing vehicles must be maintained in a road worthy condition to ensure the comfort and safety of the occupants.

128. The driver must be competent at handling and manoeuvring the vehicle before attempting a journey with an animal on board. The driver should ensure a smooth and considerate journey and avoid rapid acceleration and deceleration.

Unfit animals

129. Unfit animals should not be transported. Seriously ill, injured (particularly those with serious leg injuries), and weak animals should not be transported other than in specially designed horse ambulances or for short distances on the advice of a veterinary surgeon when emergency surgery is required. Mares due to foal should not be transported.

Loading and unloading

130. Not only can poor standards of care during loading, unloading and carriage be against the Law, but will almost certainly adversely affect the horse. Straw matting, or other suitable non-slip material, should be used on ramps or other surfaces where necessary, to prevent the risk of injury.

Care during transport

131. Everyone who handles or transports horses has a duty of care and is potentially liable to prosecution where injury or unnecessary suffering has been caused or is likely to occur. The journey should be planned ahead and if for instance, hot weather is forecast, travel overnight should be arranged.

132. Horses in transit should be offered clean water at regular intervals to avoid thirst. The attendant in charge should bear this in mind particularly if an animal is being transported to and from the Island by sea. Animals can become hot and distressed when travelling by sea, particularly in high ambient temperatures. The attendant in charge should inspect and offer water to the horses during the crossing, on a least 1 occasion. Travel on hot days should be avoided.

133. Suitable food and water should be made available to the horse on arrival at their destination. Suitable palatable, wholesome food should be offered during the journey. Suitable hay nets or racks must be provided, and animals should not be fed off the floor.

Horse welfare at event and competitions

Competitions

134. In all equestrian sports, the welfare of the horse must be considered paramount. The highest standards of nutrition, health, sanitation and safety must be maintained at all times.

135. All handling and veterinary treatment must ensure the health and welfare of the horse. During transportation, adequate provision must be made for ventilation, feeding, watering and maintaining a healthy environment.

136. The wellbeing of the horse must take precedence over the demands of all interested parties and commercial concerns. All riding and training methods should take account of the horse as a living creature and must not include any technique considered to be abusive. Furthermore, in the interest of the horse, the fitness and competence of the rider (or driver) should be regarded as essential.

137. National and international rules regarding the health and welfare of horses must be strictly adhered to, not only in competition but also during training.

Organisers of equine activities

138. Organisers of any equine activity where horses are brought together, must provide facilities and services to ensure that the horses welfare can adequately be catered for.

139. The organiser should provide an adequate supply of fresh clean drinking water for all horses involved in the activity and, if unable to do so, owners of competing horses should be given prior warning. All horse accommodation provided by the organisers must be secure and meet the minimum required standards.

140. The organisers of any equine activity should consider the wellbeing of the horse above any personal needs and the demands of others. The organiser must ensure that every test of speed, skill or endurance is within the reasonable capacity of a fit, healthy horse that is correctly trained for the purpose.

141. The organiser has a responsibility to provide on-call emergency access to a veterinary surgeon who is experienced in equine treatment.

Livery yards

142. A Livery Yard is one providing facilities, supervision and care of horses that are not the property of the operation, in return for remuneration or reward.

143. The livery may include the provision of grazing, stabling and training or breeding, on a commercial basis.

Livery services

144. The following is a guide to the main types of livery services available, although conditions may vary between establishments.

Full livery

145. This includes the provision of stabling, or stabling and turn-out, and the complete care of a horse in return for remuneration or reward. This type of livery may include, by arrangement, the training and exercise of the horse, and preparation for riding or competitions as required by the owner.

Part livery

146. This covers the provision of supervision, stabling or grazing in return for remuneration or reward. The care of the horse and responsibility for watering, feeding and maintenance of the bedding, is by arrangement. Unless otherwise stated, exercise and grooming are usually carried out by the horse's owner or agent, although the livery yard operator will usually bring-in or turn-out the horse as required.

Working livery (or half livery)

147. Here, the care of the horse is carried out by the livery yard in return for its agreed use by the livery operator. There may also be agreed remuneration or reward. In addition to the responsibilities for the care of the animal, the conditions under which the horse can be worked (such as the number of hours per day or week), restrictions on the type of work or type of rider (size and experience) and any exceptions should be clearly defined.

Do-it-yourself livery

148. This covers the provision, by the yard operator, of stabling or grazing in return for remuneration or reward, where the feeding and care of the animal is to be carried out by its owner. Responsibility for turn-out, checking, emergency callout of veterinary attention or farrier, and security of tack is devolved by mutual arrangement.

Grass livery

149. Grass livery is the provision of grazing and shelter with or without supervision in return for remuneration or reward. Provision may also be made for supplementary feed as necessary. Responsibility for checking the horse, maintenance of fencing, pasture management and the rotation of horses between paddocks, should be clearly defined.

Responsibilities and agreements

150. Financial arrangements, types of care, facilities offered and conditions will vary between establishments and should, therefore, be clearly defined. A written agreement, defining the conditions of livery, should always be made between the operator and the owner or agent of the horse. Preferably, such agreements should be made before the horse concerned is placed at the establishment.

151. The agreement should state the name of the person responsible for supervision of the horse, for the provision of feed and water, and the action to be taken in the event of illness or injury to the horse.

152. The operator of the livery yard should state the provisions made for the safety and security of the animals, the supply of feed and bedding, and routine measures for vaccinations and control of parasites.

153. In all forms of livery, the ultimate responsibility for the welfare of the horse while the animal must be clearly stated in writing.

154. Any disputes that may arise between a livery yard operator and the horse owner or agent must not be permitted to interfere with the minimum standards of accommodation, supervision, nutrition and general welfare of the animal.

Riding establishments

155. The term 'riding establishment' refers to the operation of a business where horses are kept for the purpose of hire for riding or for use in providing instruction in riding, in return for payment or reward.

156. The definition includes any business, non-profit making or voluntary operation which provides a horse or horses for riding, trekking or tuition, whether or not the reward is financial or otherwise. This also includes establishments in which the horses used for tuition are owned or leased by the operator or proprietor.

Qualification of proprietors or managers

157. The owner or manager of a riding establishment must be suitably qualified and experienced in the management and care of horses to be able to supervise the establishment.

Use of horses

158. Horses (including any horse, pony, ass, mule or jennet) must be in good health, physically fit and suitable for the purpose for which they are used. Animals 3 years old and under and mares within 3 months of foaling are not suitable. Every horse should have at least 1 rest day per week.

General husbandry

159. The supply of feed, water and bedding material must be adequate and of suitable quality, with sufficient provision for the animals within the establishment plus reasonable reserve.

160. Horse must be adequately exercised, groomed, rested and visited at suitable intervals.

Grazing

161. Horses at grass must have fresh, clean water at all times, as well as adequate pasture and shelter. Supplementary feed should be provided when horses are in work or during the winter, according to the type of horse and the pasture quality.

Housing

62. Riding establishments must have suitable accommodation for its horses and ponies.

Health

163. Reasonable precautions must be taken against the spread of infectious diseases and veterinary first-aid equipment maintained on the premises. Isolation facilities should be available. In case of emergency, it is advisable that the name, address and telephone number of the vet, farrier and doctor are prominently displayed.

Saddlery

164. All riding equipment should be maintained in good condition so as not to cause suffering to the horse or accident to the rider. Saddles and girths should be fitted to be comfortable for the individual horse and stirrup irons should be of a suitable size for the rider.

Safety and security

165. Fire precautions must be taken for the protection of horses in case of fire or other emergency. Smoking on the premises should be prohibited by notice. Fire extinguishers should be serviced regularly and water must be readily available. There should be easy, clear access to all stalls and loose boxes. The name, address and telephone number of the licence holder or other responsible person, with directions for action in event of fire procedure, how to operate equipment, where it is stored and where to lead the horses to safety. Advice may be sought from the Fire Prevention Officer.

166. Insurance: the licence holder must hold a current Public Liability Insurance policy which provides indemnity against personal liability for damages in the event of death of or injury to an employee, rider or visitor and damage to property.

Stud yards

167. A Stud Yard is one providing facilities for the breeding of horses. This may include the care and management of brood mares, facilities for foaling, management of mares with foals at foot and young stock. The general codes for the welfare of horses apply. Breeding animals and young stock have additional requirements.

Management

168. Stud management requires special knowledge, horsemanship and facilities different from those of other commercial horse enterprises.

The stallion

169. The temperament of an entire male horse may be variable and unpredictable especially in the breeding season (spring and early summer). The stallion should be stabled away from immediate direct contact with other horses, though within sight of them preferably overlooking the covering yard. Stallions are often best controlled by one regular handler who will understand their temperament and behaviour. Exercise and grazing arrangements may often have to be solitary but certain stallions may be able to combine a full competitive life and stud duties very well. As stallions may bite vigorously, adequate warning notices should be posted near their stable.

Brood mares

170. Brood mares at stud awaiting covering are often well managed in small groups in suitable grass paddocks and cared for as any other horse at grass. They should be unshod or only have "grass tips" on the front feet to prevent kick injuries.

Mares with foals at foot

171. Once foaled down, mares with foals of similar age may be grouped together in suitable paddocks during the day in favourable weather. Mare and foal boxes need to be larger than a box for a single horse with a wider door access to allow the foal and mare to walk in together. Similarly gateways and fencing of paddocks must take account of the foals size and immaturity.

Young stock

172. Weaned foals may be kept in peer groups. If this is not possible then great care must be taken to avoid fighting or bullying within a group. Individual stabling at night in poor weather is required though loose housing in adequate yards may be applicable. Yearlings should be managed in same sex groups along the same principles as older horses.

Covering

173. The thoroughbred breeding season is controlled by the rules of The Stud Book though mares can conceive outside the defined dates. With an average pregnancy of 330 days, breeding is planned so that foals are born in spring and early summer to coincide with good weather and supply of grass.

Venereal and other diseases

174. Stud managers must be aware of the separate codes of practice on equine diseases. These are available from the Horseracing Betting Levy Board website and include:

  • Contagious Equine Metritis
  • Equine Herpes Virus
  • Equine Viral Arteritis
  • other bacterial diseases

Veterinary advice on these matters may be sought. It's also recommended that all horses visiting the stud should be adequately vaccinated against Equine Influenza and Tetanus.

Preparation of the mare

175. During her breeding season, a mare will be in oestrous for up to 5 days every 21 days. Veterinary advice may be sought about the optimum time for covering and for the avoidance of twin conceptuses. However, a mare should be properly "teased" before being brought before the stallion. This is achieved by using a "trying board" to prevent injury to the handlers, stallion or mare.

Foaling

176. There is a saying that the "Foal decided the day but the mare decided the time". The supervision of foaling is often difficult as the progression from the first stage labour to the delivery of the foal may be very rapid and not observed even in a well-maintained yard, most often occurring in the still early hours of the morning.

Foaling boxes

177. Foaling boxes must be of adequate size for the type of mare with good lighting available, good access and ideally more than one place for observation. CCTVs may be installed. The walls and floors should be of suitable materials to allow thorough cleaning between each mare foaling. Adequate bedding with banking to the walls should be maintained, to prevent injury to the mare.

Veterinary considerations

178. Observing foalings is important to be able to detect any dystocias requiring immediate intervention and correction. Expulsion of placenta within a short time of the foal being born is essential to prevent endometritis and shock laminitis in the mare. Healthy foals will stand within 45 minutes of birth and suckle soon after. This is vital to be able to receive the essential colostrum.

Mare and foals at foot and yearlings

179. The colostral immunity or protection wanes by 4 months of age and active immunisation programmes against Equine Influenza, Herpes Virus and Tetanus may be commenced.

180. Foals and yearlings are most susceptible to parasitic worm infections that can be picked up from permanent horse paddocks. Good grass management to control dung burdens is essential and veterinary advice concerning worming protocols should be sought.

Kennels

Housing

Kennels

1. All exterior wood should be smooth and properly treated against wood rot. Only products which are non toxic to dogs should be used. In new units, dogs should not have direct access to wood. In existing units where dogs have direct access to wood, this should be replaced as soon as reasonably practical.

2. All internal surfaces used in the construction of walls, floors, partitions, doors and door frames should be durable, smooth and impervious. There must be no projections or rough edges liable to cause injury.

3. Sleeping areas of units should be insulated to prevent extremes of temperature.

4. Fencing material must be secure and safe. There should be no projections or rough edges liable to cause injury.

5. The construction must be such that the security of the dog is ensured.

6. All areas to which the dogs have free access must be roofed or of sufficient height to prevent escape. In cases where there is no roof, the top of the fence should have an internal overhang.

Walls

7. The walls with which the dogs come into contact should be of smooth impervious materials, capable of being easily cleaned and disinfected. Where concrete or other building blocks or bricks are used, they should be sealed so as to be smooth and impervious, and resealed as necessary.

8. Junctions between vertical and horizontal sections should be covered. If impractical in existing premises, these joints should be sealed.

9. Full length and height sneeze barriers should be provided where the gap between units is less than 625 millimetres (2 feet).

Floors and concrete bases

10. The concrete base and floors of all buildings and units should be of smooth, impervious materials, capable of being easily cleansed. In new kennels, should incorporate a damp proof membrane.

11. Floors of all units and individual exercise areas should be constructed and maintained in such a condition as to prevent pooling of liquids.

Ceilings and roofing

12. Ceilings should be capable of being easily cleansed and disinfected.

13. All exercise areas attached to the sleeping area and the safety passages should be covered with mesh or equivalent.

Doors

14. Doors must be strong enough to resist impact and scratching and must be fitted to be capable of being effectively secured.

15. Where metal edging is used, this must not present a risk of injury to the dog.

16. Construction should prevent and control the spread of infectious disease particularly by droplet infection.

Windows

17. All windows which pose a security risk must be escape proof at all times.

Drainage

18. Kitchens used for producing/preparing animal meals should be connected to mains drainage or an approved, localised sewage disposal system.

19. Individual drainage is required in cases where the drain is inside the kennel to which the dog has access

Lighting

20. During daylight hours, light must be provided to exercise and sleeping areas. Where practical, this should be natural light.

21. Adequate supplementary lighting must be provided throughout the establishment.

Ventilation

22. Ventilation must be provided to all interior areas without the creation of excessive localised draughts in the sleeping area.

Maintenance

23. Maintenance and repair of the whole establishment must be carried out regularly and recorded.

Sleeping and exercise facilities

24. In new constructions, each unit should have a sleeping area and an adjoining exercise area, which is exclusive to that unit.

25. In new constructions, each unit should be provided with a sleeping area of at least 1.9 square meter (20 square feet).

26. Units should have a minimum internal height of 1.8 meter (6 feet) to facilitate adequate access by kennel staff for cleaning.

27. Suitable clean bedding must be provided and must be capable of being easily cleaned and disinfected, if it is to be reused. Bedding material should be checked daily and must be maintained in a clean, parasite-free and dry condition.

28. In any new construction, each unit should be provided with an exercise area of at least 2.5 square meter (26 square feet) (for dogs up to 60 centimetres (24 inches) high at the shoulder) or 3.4 square meters (36 square feet) for larger dogs. The exercise area should be separate from the sleeping area and exclusive to that kennel, for free use by the dog at all times, except at night. The exercise area should be attached to the kennel with a connecting door or hatch.

29. Units should open onto secure corridors or other secure areas, so that dogs are not able to escape from the premises.

30. Exercise areas to which there should be direct and voluntary access, must not be used as sleeping areas.

Kitchen facilities

31. In kennels with the capacity to board more than 6 dogs, exclusive facilities, hygienically constructed and maintained, must be provided for the storage and preparation of food for the dogs.

32. Where fresh and cooked meats are stored, refrigeration facilities must be provided. Food contamination must be avoided.

33. A sink with hot and cold water must be provided for the washing of food equipment and eating and drinking bowls. A separate wash-hand basin with hot and cold water should be provided for staff use.

34. Containers must be provided for the storage of foods. These should be vermin proof and capable of cleaning and disinfection.

Isolation facilities

35. Isolation facilities must be provided.

36. When any dog is showing signs of, or has been diagnosed with, an infectious disease, it must be isolated.

37. These isolation facilities must comply with the other requirements but must be separate and physically isolated from the main units. This separation must be a minimum of 5 metres (15 feet).

38. Adequate facilities and practices to prevent the spread of infectious disease between the isolation unit and other units must be in place. Disposable overall or boiler suit for use solely in the isolation unit is recommended. Hands must be washed after leaving the isolation facilities.

Management

39. The maximum number of dogs to be boarded at one time must be appropriate for the facilities.

40. Each dog must be provided with a separate unit. Except for dogs from the same household who may share a unit of adequate size at the request of the dogs' owner. When sharing occurs, each dog must have its own bed in which it can lie down comfortably in the sleeping area. There should be sufficient space for the door to open fully. Dogs from different households must not be mixed at any time.

41. Holding kennels may be provided for temporarily kennelling a dog for not more than 24 hours. Holding kennels, if provided, must comply with conditions required for the main kennels. Holding kennels should be a minimum area of 2.3 square metre (5 square feet).

42. Where stray dogs are accepted by the kennels, they must be kept in a separate area away from boarded dogs. Kennels for strays should comply with other boarding requirements. Appropriate measures must be taken to minimise the risk of cross infection between stray dogs and boarders.

Temperature in units

43. Heating facilities must be made available in the unit and used according to the requirements of the individual dog.

44. Sleeping area temperature should be in the range 10 to 26 degree Celsius.

45. Extremes of temperature should be avoided.

46. In isolation units, there should be a means of maintaining the temperature at a level suitable for the conditions of the dog and dependent on veterinary advice.

Cleanliness

47. All areas must be kept clean and free from dirt and dust in order to maintain disease control and dog comfort.

48. Each occupied unit must be cleaned daily. All excreta and soiled material must be removed from all areas used by the dogs at least daily and more often if necessary.

49. All bedding must be kept clean and dry.

50. Each unit must be thoroughly cleaned, disinfected and dried upon vacation. All fittings and bedding must also be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected at that time.

51. Facilities must be provided for the proper reception, storage and disposal of all waste. Particular care should be taken to segregate clinical waste arising from the treatment and handling of dogs with infectious diseases. Clinical waste must be incinerated.

52. Measures to control the risks from rodents, insects and other pests must be undertaken without endangering the health or welfare of the dogs.

Food and water

53. All dogs must be adequately supplied with suitable food. At least 2 meals a day should be offered at approximately 8 hours apart, unless the owner has specifically requested otherwise. One large meal a day is not advisable in a kennel situation. Fresh, clean water must be available at all times and changed daily.

54. Eating and drinking bowls must be capable of being easily cleaned and disinfected and must be maintained in a clean condition.

55. Eating bowls must be cleaned after each meal.

56. Drinking bowls must be cleaned at least once a day.

Records

57. A register must be kept of all dogs boarded. The information kept must include:

  • date of arrival
  • name of dog, and any identification system such as a microchip, number or
  • tattoo
  • description, breed, age and gender of dog
  • name, address and telephone number of owner or keeper
  • name, address and telephone number of emergency contact person
  • name, address and telephone number of dog's veterinary surgeon
  • anticipated and actual date of departure
  • health, welfare and nutritional requirements
  • vaccination status

58. The register must be kept readily available for a minimum of 24 months.

59. Where records are computerised, a back-up copy must be kept.

Identification of units

60. Each unit must be clearly identified. Relevant information about the dog in that unit should be readily available.

Supervision

61. A fit and proper person must always be available to exercise supervision and deal with emergencies.

62. Dogs must be visited at regular intervals, as necessary for their health, safety and welfare.

Disease control and vaccination

63. Adequate precautions must be taken to prevent and control the spread of infectious and contagious disease and parasites amongst dogs, staff and visitors.

64. Proof must be provided that dogs boarded or resident have current vaccinations against infectious canine diseases. Your veterinary surgeon's advice should be sought and followed. The course of vaccination must have been completed in accordance with manufacturers' instructions or veterinary advice. A record of current vaccination status should be kept. Any dog, other than strays, which is not vaccinated, must not be accepted.

65. Stray dogs must be accommodated and managed remote from boarding.

66. Advice from a veterinary surgeon must be sought in the case of signs of disease, injury or illness. Any instructions for its treatment which have been given by a veterinary surgeon must be strictly followed.

Staff training

67. A written training policy should be provided. Staff training records should be kept.

Emergencies and fire prevention

68. Appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of dogs in the case of fire or other emergencies. Use of a smoke detector is recommended.

69. A proper emergency evacuation plan and fire warning procedure must be drawn up in consultation with the Fire Safety Officer and posted on the premises.

70. Fire Safety equipment must be provided in accordance with advice given by the Fire Safety Officer.

71. All electrical installations and appliances must be maintained in a safe condition. There should be a residual current circuit breaker system on each block of units.

72. Heating appliances must not be sited in a location or manner which may present a risk of fire.

73. Precautions must be taken to prevent any accumulation of materials which may present a risk of fire or risk to dogs.

74. There must be adequate means of raising the alarm in the event of fire or other emergency.

Transport

75. All vehicles used by the establishment for the transportation of animals must be regularly serviced and kept clean. They must be fitted with cages of adequate size for the safe transportation of animals and be provided with adequate ventilation. All vehicles must be secure and should not be left unattended when transporting animals, except for loading and unloading.

Pet groomers

Welfare of companion animals

1. Groomers should ensure the welfare of all animals in their care. Animals should be handled in a manner which promotes their confidence and co-operation and the health and safety of all involved.

2. Groomers should encourage owners to seek prompt veterinary attention for any animals in their care if signs of ill health are detected.

Housing

Size

3. The animal must be able to stand up, lie down and turn around without difficulty in confined accommodation which should only be used for brief time periods whilst awaiting grooming or collection.

Construction

4. Building materials must be able to be easily and thoroughly cleaned and surface should be free from sharp edges which could cause injury.

Temperature

5. Accommodation should be kept at a suitable temperature ideally in the range 10 to 26 degree Celsius. Extremes of temperature should be avoided.

Lighting

6. Premises must be well lit.

Ventilation

7 Premises and accommodation must be well ventilated without excessive draughts.

Hygiene

8. Premises, accommodation and equipment must be kept clean.

9. Clean and disinfect grooming equipment between animals.

10. Ensure grooming equipment is stored clean and kept in a good state of repair.

11. Facilities must be provided for proper storage and disposal of all waste.

Safety

12. Premises must be made secure with particular attention paid to windows and doors, especially with regard to cats.

Management

Disease control

13. Animals must not be able to make direct contact with each other. If on arrival an animal is showing signs of disease it may not be accepted for grooming and the owner asked if the animal is receiving appropriate treatment.

14. Animals should be adequately supplied with fresh clean drinking water and observed at suitable intervals. Groomers should be familiar with the signs of heat stress and necessary immediate action to take when it is identified.

Emergencies and fire prevention

15. Appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of animals in case of fire or other emergencies.

16. A proper emergency evacuation plan and fire warning procedure must be drawn up in consultation with the Fire Safety Officer and posted on the premises.

17. Fire fighting equipment must be provided in accordance with advice given by the Fire Safety Officer.

18. All electrical installations and appliances must be maintained in a safe condition. There should be a residual current circuit breaker system on all electrical equipment. Electric sockets within reach of water must be covered.

19. Heating appliances must not be sited in a location or manner where they may present a risk of fire, or risk to animals.

20. Precautions must be taken to prevent any accumulation of materials which may present a risk of fire.

21. There must be adequate means of raising the alarm in the event of fire or other emergency.

Staff training

22. Groomers will ensure that their staff are properly trained in:

  • grooming skills
  • product knowledge
  • animal handling
  • health and safety rules

23. It is recommended the proprietor should have a recognised grooming qualification and adequate experience. All staff should be encouraged to study and train for a relevant qualification.

24. All staff must be made aware of this code of practice and its meaning.

Pets sold commercially

These recommendations are for the welfare of all species. pecially those kept or sold through Pet Shops including companion animals and exotic species.

Housing

1. Animals shall at all times, whether displayed indoors or outdoors, be kept in accommodation suitable with respect to:

  • construction
  • size
  • temperature
  • lighting
  • ventilation
  • cleanliness

Reference should be made to other applicable codes of practice.

2. Animals shall not be exposed to draughts.

3. Housing shall be constructed of non-porous materials or be appropriately treated.

4. Animals shall not be kept in housing in such a way that they can be interfered with by other animals or the public.

5. All livestock, for sale and in stock, must be readily accessible and easy to inspect.

6. Accommodation shall be cleaned regularly to maintain good hygiene standards, consistent with the rate of stock turnover. Sleeping area and bedding must be maintained clean and dry where appropriate for the species.

7. Where accommodation is on a tiered system, water, food or other droppings shall not be allowed to enter the lower housing.

8. All accessories provided in the accommodation shall be suitable for the species.

9. In the case of exotic animals, such as reptiles (for example, snakes, iguanas, lizards), chelonians (for example, tortoises and terrapins) and amphibians (for example, frogs) particular care should be taken to ensure that their individual, species specific environmental requirements are met at all times. This includes:

  • suitable ventilation
  • relative humidity
  • temperature
  • lighting (including additional access to a suitable ultraviolet light source if appropriate for that species)

All chelonians should have access to fresh water for drinking and bathing.

Management

Exercise facilities

10. Suitable and sufficient facilities must be available. Environmental enrichment must be provided as appropriate to that species for mental and physical stimulation.

Stocking number and densities

11. The maximum number of animals to be stocked on the premises will be determined by the accommodation available. As a guide to good practice, refer to the tables below on stocking density.

Cage birds stocking density

All birds should be housed in accommodation which is of sufficient size to permit the bird to stretch its wings freely.

For perching species, a perch or perches of appropriate size must be provided at such a height that the bird can stretch to its full height without its head touching the top or its tail touching the bottom of the cage.

A good quality padded net should be used when catching birds in an aviary.

Cage size requirements per bird type​
​Bird type

​Bird length
​Floor area (sq cm)
​​Floor area (sq in)
​Cage height
​Cm
​In
​Single
​Each additional
​Single
​Each additional
​Cm
​In
BudgerigarNot applicable ​650200100303012
CanaryNot applicable ​65025010037
3012
CockatielNot applicable ​1000250170454016
Finches

up to 12.5

5

650

100

100

15

30

12


​12.5 to 17.5

​5 to 7

​750

​150

​115

​20

​over 17.5

​7

​1000

​200

​170

​30

Parakeet

up to 25

10

1000

250

170

45

30

12

25 to 35
​10 to 14
​250
​170
​45
​40
​16
over 35
​14
​450
​215
​75
​50
​20

Parrot

up to 30

12

800

275

130

45

40

16

​30 to 35
12 to 14
​1250
​625
​200
​100
​50
​20
​over 35
​14
​1500
​750
​260
​115
​60
24

Juvenile small mammals stocking density

Raised shelving should be provided but not taken into consideration when assessing total floor area.

Cage size requirements per animal type ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​
Number and type of animals ​
1 to 4
5
678910Cage min. heightCage min. depth

Mice
Hamsters Gerbils


Sq cm

450

525

600

675

750

825

900

25

25

Sq in7284961081201321441010
Rats
Sq cm67578590010101125123513503030
Sq in

108

 

126144

162

 

180

 

198

 

216

 

12

 

12

Guinea pigs

Sq cm13501570180020202250247027003030
Sq in

216

252

288

324

360

396

432

12
12

Rabbits (up to 2 kgs)
Ferrets
Chinchillas
Chipmunks

Sq cm22502625300033753750412545003040
Sq in

360

 

420

 

480

 

540

 

600

 

660

 

720

 

16

 

12

Ornamental fish or aquatic amphibians stocking density

ItIts impossible to determine the quantity of fish to be kept in a tank purely on a weight and volume or numbers of fish and volume.

The variation in system design, husbandry techniques and types of fish involved would render any such method too simple to be useful or too complicated to be practical.

The maintenance of water quality standards is essential and is a simple but effective way to determine stocking densities. Water quality testing should be carried out at least once a week in centralised systems and 10% of individual tanks should likewise be tested. Unsatisfactory test results must be recorded in a register together with the corrective action taken. Further tests must be carried out when visual inspection of the tanks indicates the need.

Tanks should be checked for dead fish daily and these should be removed immediately.

Information displayed on the tank must include:

  • size when full grown
  • environmental requirements
  • suitable tank size
  • approximate life span
  • community or species fish
  • suitable cohabitants
  • special needs

Dissolved oxygen and free ammonia should be checked first. Only if a problem exists with these tests is it necessary to check nitrite and nitrate levels.

Water quality criteria (1mg per litre - 1ppm) ​ ​ ​
Type of fish
Parameter
Maximum or minimum
Quantity in mg/litre
Cold water fish
​ ​ ​
Dissolved OxygenMin.6
Free AmmoniaMax.0.02
NitriteMax.0.2
NitrateMax.50 above ambient tap water
Tropical fish
​ ​ ​
Dissolved OxygenMin.6
Free AmmoniaMax.0.02
NitriteMax.0.2
NitrateMax.50 above ambient tap water
Tropical marine species
​ ​ ​ ​
Dissolved OxygenMin.5.5
Free AmmoniaMax.0.01
NitriteMax.0.125
NitrateMax.40 (this is an absolute figure. It does not relate to ambient tap water)
pH (tropical marine only)Min.8.1

Reptiles and amphibians stocking density

For aquatic amphibians see ornamental fish or aquatic amphibians stocking density.

Lizards, terrestrial and semi-terrestrial newts, salamanders and other tailed amphibians display accommodation requirements
​Animal length
Number of animals
Minimum accommodation size ​
Length
Width
Height
​Up to 5cm (2in)
​1 to 25
45cm (18in)
​ ​ ​
25cm (10in)
​ ​ ​
25cm (10in)
​ ​

​Over 5cm to 10cm (over 2in to 4in)
​1 to 15
​Over 10cm to 15cm (over 4in to 6in)
​1 to 8
​Over 15cm (6in)
​1 to 4
Box turtles, terrapins, terrestrial and semi-terrestrial frogs, toads, tree frogs and other tailless amphibians display accommodation requirements
​Animal length
​Number of animals
Minimum accommodation size
Length
Width
Height
​Up to 3cm (1.2in)
​1 to 20
45cm (18in)
​ ​
25cm (10in)
25cm (10in)
​Over 3cm to 5cm (over 1.2in to 2in)
​1 to 10
​Over 5cm to 10cm (over 2in to 4in)
​1 to 4
Snakes display accommodation requirements
​Minimum accommodation size​
Length
Width
Height
2 third of snake's length
15 cm (6 in)
10 cm (4 in) or 4 by thickness of snake (arboreal species must be third of length of snake)

Cage requirements for all categories

Nursery or isolation units (labelled as such) for hatchling and newborn specimens or single specimens of small, inactive species must be a minimum size of 22 by 10 by 10 centimetres (length, width, height) or 9 by 4 by 4 inches.

Stock and breeding accommodation (off display) as display accommodation, including nursery, isolation, pairing units (unlabelled) for hatchling and newborn specimens or 1 to 2 specimens of small, inactive species, must be a minimum size of 22 by 10 by 10 centimetres (length, width, height) or 9 by 4 by 4 inches.

Snakes stock and breeding accommodation: as above, but minimum height for arboreal species is a third of the length of snake.

Stocking densities must depend not just on the floor area, but also the furnishings within the vivarium. For climbing species the sides and roof should also be considered as part of the effective floor area. Behavioural trends of individual species should also be considered.

Health, disease and acclimatisation

12. All stock must be in good health, as far as can be reasonably determined without veterinary inspection. Only healthy stock should be offered for sale.

13. Any sick or injured animal must receive appropriate care and treatment without delay. Euthanasia may only be carried out by a qualified Veterinary Surgeon.

14. Inexperienced staff must not treat sick animals unless under appropriately experienced supervision.

15. Veterinary advice should be sought whenever necessary.

16. Any animal with an obvious, significant abnormality which would materially affect its quality of life must not be offered for sale. When in doubt, veterinary advice should be sought.

17. All animals must be allowed a suitable acclimatisation period before sale.

18. A suitably equipped facility to isolate sick animals must be provided.

19. All reasonable precautions must be taken to prevent the outbreak and spread of disease.

20. All necessary precautions must be taken to prevent the introduction or harbourage of rodents, insects and other pests. In this context, 'rodent' and 'insect' excludes livestock for sale and for feeding.

21. No animal which is suffering from or could reasonably be suspected of having come into contact with any other animal suffering from any infectious or contagious disease, or which is infested with parasites shall be brought into or kept on the premises unless effectively isolated and treated.

22. Livestock used for feeding, for example, crickets, must be provided with suitable:

  • climate
  • food
  • water

23. Puppies and kittens must be kept separate from other litters.

Food and water

24. Animals must be supplied with adequate amounts of food and drink appropriate to their needs, and at suitable regular intervals.

25. All foods must be suitable for the species concerned.

26. Food and drink receptacles must be constructed and positioned to minimise faecal contamination.

27. A sufficient number of suitable receptacles must be provided and cleaned at regular intervals.

Food storage

28. All food, excluding live foods intended for feeding to livestock on the premises, must be stored in impervious closed containers.

29. The containers and equipment used for feeding must be kept in a clean condition.

Observation

30. There must always be a competent person available. Animals must be observed at suitable intervals for their health safety and welfare. Special arrangements must also be made to attend to sick animals during the day and night.

Excreta and soiled bedding

31. All excreta and soiled bedding must be stored in impervious containers with close fitting lids.

32. Stored excreta and soiled bedding should be removed from the premises on a regular basis, at least weekly, to avoid attracting flies and vermin. The material must be disposed of appropriately.

33. All containers must be kept in clean condition.

Records

34. A livestock purchase register must be maintained for all species.

35. A livestock sales register must be maintained for all species.

Transportation

36. Animals imported to Jersey for sale must be vaccinated as appropriate for the species and a licence obtained where applicable

37. When receiving stock, the licensee must ensure that it is transported in a suitable manner to prevent unnecessary suffering or distress. There should be adequate ventilation and the interior of vehicles must be kept clean.

38. Any livestock received or consigned shall be transported according to current legislation.

39. Livestock must be transported or handed to purchasers in suitable containers.

Sale of livestock

40. All livestock sold must be in good health and free from obvious parasitic infection as can be reasonably determined without veterinary inspection.

41. No mammal shall be sold unweaned or at an age at which it should not have been weaned.

42. In the case of non-mammals they must be capable of feeding themselves.

43. No animal should be sold to any person under the age of 16 years unless that person is accompanied by a parent or legal guardian.

44. In all cases the licensee should be satisfied that the purchaser's intention towards the acquisition is consistent with the wellbeing of the animal concerned.

Pet care advice

45. Pet care leaflets relating to the species purchased must be made available to customers at the time of purchase.

46. Purchases of accessories must be accompanied by proper advice about their maintenance and use.

47. Appropriate reference books must always be available for use by staff.

48. No animal should be stocked or sold unless a permanent member of staff is familiar with the care and welfare of the species.

Staff training

49. At least 1 member of staff working at the premises should hold a City and Guilds Pet Store Management Certificate, or other appropriate qualification, or must be in the course of training.

50. A written training policy and training record for all staff is required. There should always be supervision and induction training for new staff, particularly those not experienced in animal handling.

Boarding of animals

51. If animals are boarded, they must be kept in separate, appropriate accommodation suitable for the species and not accessible by the public. Codes of practice for boarding dogs and cats are available.

Emergencies and fire prevention

52. Appropriate steps must be taken for the protection of all animals in case of fire or other emergencies.

53. A proper emergency evacuation plan and fire warning procedure must be drawn up in consultation with the Fire Safety Officer and posted on the premises.

54. Fire Safety equipment must be provided in accordance with advice given by the Fire Safety Officer

55. All electrical installations and appliances must be maintained in a safe condition.

56. Heating appliances must not be sited in a location or manner where they may present a risk of fire, or risk to animals.

57. Precautions must be taken to prevent any accumulation of materials which may present a risk of fire.

58. There must be adequate means of raising the alarm in the event of fire or other emergency.

Pig

The code identifies good stockmanship as a key factor in farm animal welfare and this code is an essential tool for every stockkeeper. All persons involved with pigs should read it carefully and to bear its recommendations in mind at all times.

Stockmanship is a key factor because no matter how otherwise acceptable a system may be in principle, without competent, diligent stockmanship the welfare of the pigs cannot be adequately catered for. The recommendations which follow are designed to help stockkeepers, particularly those who are young or inexperienced, to attain the required standards.

Introduction

1. The welfare of pigs can be safeguarded and their behavioural needs met under a variety of management systems. The system, and the number and stocking rate of pigs kept at any one time, depends on the suitability of the conditions and the skills of the stockkeeper.

2. Consideration should be given to the question of animal welfare before installing more complex or elaborate equipment than has previously been used. In general the greater the restriction imposed on the animal and the greater the complexity of the system or of the degree of control which is exercised over temperature, air flow or food supply, the less the animal is able to use its instinctive behaviour to modify the effect of unfavourable conditions and the greater the chance of suffering if mechanical or electrical failures occur. Therefore systems involving a high degree of control over the environment should only be installed where conscientious staff skilled in both animal husbandry and the use of the equipment will always be available.

3. Although very large herds can be managed successfully, in general the larger the size of the unit the greater the degree of skill and conscientiousness needed to safeguard welfare. The size of a unit should not be increased nor should a large unit be set up unless it is reasonably certain that the stockkeeper in charge will be able to safeguard the welfare of the individual animal.

4. All stockkeepers should know the normal behaviour of pigs. Badly managed and unhealthy pigs will not do well, and it is essential that the stockkeeper should watch for signs of distress, disease or aggression by other members of the group towards an animal. It is important for management purposes that stockkeepers should have ample time for the checking of stock and inspection of equipment.

5. The good stockkeeper will know the signs which indicate good health in pigs. He should be able to recognise impending trouble in its earliest stages and may often be able to identify the cause and put matters right immediately. If the cause is not obvious or if the keeper's immediate action is not effective, veterinary or other expert advice should be obtained as soon as possible.

6. Signs of illness in pigs include:

  • separation from the group
  • poor appetite
  • vomiting
  • constipation
  • diarrhoea
  • discoloration of the skin
  • shivering
  • sneezing
  • rapid or irregular breathing
  • persistent coughing or panting
  • swollen navel
  • udder or joints
  • lameness (inspection of the feet and legs is particularly important)
  • lack of coordination

Housing

General recommendations for all pigs

7. Advice on welfare aspects should be sought when new buildings are to be constructed or existing buildings modified. Some intensive systems depend on specialised buildings and complex mechanical and electrical equipment, which require a high level of technical and managerial skills to ensure that husbandry and welfare requirements are met. Weighing, handling and loading facilities should be incorporated.

8. Internal surfaces of housing and pens should be of materials which can, and should, either be cleansed and disinfected or be easily replaceable when necessary.

9. Internal surfaces and fittings of buildings and pens accessible to pigs should not have sharp edges or projections likely to cause injury.

10. Good floor design and adequate maintenance are of paramount importance. The lying area should always be kept dry and pen floors, particularly the dunging area, should be drained effectively. The use of bare concrete, slatted or perforated floors, particularly when badly maintained, can cause severe problems, such as lameness or damage to the feet. Veterinary advice should be sought if any of these abnormalities occur.

11. Given the opportunity, the pig eats fibrous material, also roots about and makes a nest and uses a separate dunging area. Bedding, and especially straw, contributes towards the needs of the pig for thermal and physical comfort and satisfies some of its behavioural requirements. Buildings in use may be difficult to adapt and the use of bedding can cause problems of drainage and hygiene. Nonetheless, systems in which straw or similar material is provided in the lying area are strongly recommended.

12. Paints and wood preservatives which may be toxic to pigs should not be used on surfaces accessible to them. Particular care is necessary to guard against the risk of poisoning from old paintwork in any part of the building or when second-hand building materials are used.

13. In case a 999 call has to be made notices should be prominently displayed in all livestock buildings stating where the nearest telephone is located. Each telephone should have fixed by it a notice giving instructions on the best route to the farm and a description of the location of the telephone.

14. There is usually some warning of interruptions in the supply of feeding stuffs and, so far as possible, arrangements should be made to lay in adequate stocks of food or water to offset the worst effects of such a contingency.

Ventilation and temperature

15. Excessive heat loss or gain should be prevented either by the structural insulation of the external walls, roof and floor of the lying area or by the provision of adequate bedding. Effective ventilation of all buildings and the avoidance of draughts are essential. There should be an alarm system independent of the mains electricity supply to warn the stockkeeper of failure of any automated equipment. Expert advice may be necessary to ensure correct temperature, air flow and humidity for the type of stock housed.

16. Pigs which have very limited ability to sweat are acutely susceptible to heat stress and an adequate airflow should be maintained or alternative cooling methods used to ensure that pigs in buildings do not become overheated in hot weather.

17. Extremes of air temperature or of humidity (as in the 'sweat box'), particularly those liable to cause heat stress, should not be deliberately maintained.

18. The temperature ranges given below all incorporate the minimum temperature appropriate over a range of circumstances. Factors that may affect temperature requirements include:

  • feed intake
  • air speed
  • floor type
  • group size
  • live weight

It's essential that these factors are taken into account in determining the minimum temperature appropriate in each case. Perforated or slatted floors and low feed levels increase temperature requirements and straw bedding, high feed levels and high body weights decrease requirements. For most circumstances an appropriate temperature can be found within the range given below:

​Temperature range per category of pig​ ​

Category of pig

Temperature
CelsiusFahrenheit
Sows
15 to 20

59 to 68

Sucking pigs in creeps25 to 30

77 to 84

Early weaned pigs27 to 32

81 to 90

Weaned pigs (6 weeks and over)21 to 24

70 to 75

Finishing pigs (porkers)15 to 21

59 to 70 

Finishing pigs (baconers)13 to 18

55 to 64

Finishing pigs (heavy hogs)

10 to 15
50 to 59

19. In intensive housing systems it is important to avoid wide or abrupt fluctuations in temperature within any 24 hour period. When pigs are moved to new accommodation the possibility of cold stress occurring as a result of sudden changes in the thermal environment should be lessened by the provision of bedding such as straw, or by preheating the building.

20. When removing slurry from under slats, special care is essential to avoid fouling the air with dangerous gases which may be fatal to man and animals, and it is important that the building should be thoroughly ventilated during this operation.

Lighting

21. Pigs should not be kept permanently in darkness. Throughout the hours of daylight the level of indoor lighting, natural or artificial, should be such that all housed pigs can be seen clearly. Adequate lighting for satisfactory inspection should be available at any time.

Mechanical equipment and services

22. All equipment and services including feed hoppers, drinkers, ventilating fans, heating and lighting units, fire extinguishers and alarm systems should be cleaned and inspected regularly and kept in good working order. All automated equipment should incorporate a fail-safe device maintained in working order and, where the pigs' welfare is dependant upon such equipment, an alarm system to warn the stockkeeper of failure. Alternatively ways of feeding and of maintaining a satisfactory environment should be ready for use in the event of breakdown.

23. All electrical installations at mains voltage should be inaccessible to pigs and properly earthed.

Management

Feed and water

24. When pigs are fed by any system which does not allow prolonged and unrestricted access to feed, all pigs should be able to feed at the same time. Care should be taken, when introducing pigs to unaccustomed housing, to ensure that they find the feed and water points.

25. Whatever feeding system is adopted, all pigs should receive a daily diet which is nutritionally adequate to maintain health.

26. It's important for pigs to have sufficient fresh clean water, or other wholesome liquid, for their daily needs. It's an advantage to design the water supply so that medication can be added if required. Where water is not freely available, for example, by means of bowls or drinkers, at least 2 and a half litres of water should be added to each kilogram of meal. 

The following is a guide to minimum daily water requirements for sows:

  • non-pregnant: 5 litres
  • in pregnancy: 5 to 8 litres
  • in lactation: 15 to 30 litres

27. Where drinking points are used for growing pigs, particularly those on dry feed, it's recommended, as a general guide, that a drinking point should be available for each 10 pigs.

28. Feed and water should not be completely withdrawn from sows which are being dried off.

Husbandry

29. Pigs should be closely inspected at least daily, preferably when feeding, for signs of injury, illness or distress.

30. Pigs should be kept in stable groups with as little mixing as possible. They should be handled quietly and firmly, with care to avoid unnecessary pain or distress.

31. Sick or injured pigs should be treated without delay. Accommodation, including a deep-strawed box, should be available to enable them to be isolated if necessary.

32. Where it's necessary to mark pigs for permanent identification, the ear may be tattooed, tagged, notched or punched, or the body may be tattooed. Slap marking is an acceptable method where identification is required immediately prior to transporting the pigs to slaughter. These operations should be carried out by competent operators, exercising care to avoid unnecessary pain or unnecessary distress to the pigs at the time of marking or subsequently.

33. Castration is a mutilation and should be avoided wherever possible. If it cannot be avoided, it must be carried out in accordance with the law by a veterinary surgeon or by a competent trained operator where a layman is permitted to undertake the operation. It may be performed without anaesthetic by a veterinary surgeon or other suitable trained person for castration of a pig using a scalpel up to the animal reaching 1 week of age.

34. Tail-docking has been adopted primarily to reduce the risk of tail biting. The objective should be to avoid the need for this mutilation, but, where it's recommended by a veterinary surgeon it must be carried out in accordance with the law by a competent trained operator. Cleaning and disinfecting equipment between each pig. It may be performed without anaesthetic by a veterinary surgeon or other suitable trained person for tail docking of piglets in the first 1 to 3 days of life.

35. Tooth clipping or grinding is used to minimise the risk of damage to the sow's teats and to the littermates. Where it's necessary, this mutilation should only be performed by a veterinary surgeon or by a competent trained operator. It may be performed without anaesthetic by a veterinary surgeon or other suitable trained person for tooth clipping of piglets in the first 1 to 3 days of life.

36. Sows and gilts should be managed so as to be in suitable bodily condition at the time of farrowing. Stockkeepers should be experienced and competent in the techniques of farrowing and should pay particular attention to hygiene, especially at assisted farrowing. Mechanical farrowing aids should only be used by a competent person who has received proper instruction in their use.

Farrowing pigs and sucking piglets

37. Farrowing quarters should have some means of protecting the piglets. Where farrowing rails or similar devices are used the escape area should be at least 300 millimetres wide.

38. Sows should be settled into clean and comfortable farrowing quarters well before the piglets are due to be born the recommended minimum period is 3 days prior to parturition. Straw or other suitable bedding is recommended to provide for the sow's comfort.

39. Where farrowing crates are used they must be long enough to allow sows to lie in a fully out stretched comfortable position. This will depend on the weight of the sow.

​Recommended crate lenght for sows​
Sow weight (kilograms)
Length of crate (millimetres)
1501552
2001706
2501837
3001951
350 and over2300

Any crossbars at the top of the crate must be a minimum of 150 millimetres above the back of a sow when standing in the normal position.

40. Farrowing quarters should have some form of protection for piglets. A temperature suitable for piglets should be maintained by the provision of a well-designed creep area plus supplementary heating.

41. Problems associated with weaning are related to the age at weaning, and the earlier the weaning age the better must be the system of management and nutrition if welfare problems are to be avoided. Piglets should not be weaned from the sow at less than 4 weeks although orphaned, sick and surplus piglets requiring special attention are obvious exceptions.

Growing pigs

42. The total floor space should be adequate for:

  • sleeping
  • feeding
  • exercising

Minimum sleeping areas, excluding exercise and dunging areas, should be of sufficient size to accommodate all the pigs lying on their sides. Use the table below as a guide to which areas for exercise and dunging should be added:

​Lying area per pig by live weight ​
Live weight (kilograms)Lying area (square metre)Total area (square metre)
100.100.15
200.150.22
400.250.30
600.350.55
800.450.67
1000.500.75

43. Cage rearing systems commonly cause injury to the feet and legs of piglets and may give rise to behavioural abnormalities. Although perforated floors can, in some cases, reduce the incidence of disease in the post-weaning period, systems which provide a bedded lying area or warm insulated solid floor are strongly recommended.

Dry sows and gilts

44. Where sows and gilts are kept in groups, aggression can present a severe problem. Much depends on the temperament of individual animals; but the stockkeeper should ensure that persistent bullying leading to severe injury or deprivation of food does not take place. Separate penning may be required when persistent bullying takes place. Facilities in which animals can be fed individually and thereafter released are strongly recommended.

45. Pigs must not be tethered or kept in stalls with the exception of sows during the farrowing period. Systems, such as kennels, straw-yards or yard-and-cubicles in which animals' behavioural and exercise needs can be more fully met are strongly recommended,

46. Sows should be given a minimum total floor area of 2.5 square metre for first and second parity animals with the area rising to a minimum of 3.5 square metre for mature adult sows. The lying area of the pen should be at least equal to the square of the length of the pig, this roughly equates to a minimum of 1.5 square metre for each adult sow. A suitable quantity of straw or other bedding material should be provided unless the floor on which the sows are lying is insulated and the building temperature can be maintained at the correct level.

47. In order to avoid undue excitement, which can lead to injury, breeding sows and gilts should be fed simultaneously wherever possible.

Boars

48. As a guide, individual accommodation for an adult boar should have a floor of not less than 7.5 square metre if used for living purposes only. If used for both living and service purposes the floor area should be not less than 10 metre with the shortest side not less than 2.5 metre. In either case the pen divisions should not be less than 1.5 metre high. Boar pens should not be sited or constructed in such a way as to isolate the boar from sight or sound of other stock or of farm activity.

49. In a single purpose pen, bedding should be provided in the lying area. In a dual-purpose pen, an adequate part of the floor area should be bedded, and the whole floor area should be kept dry, or sufficient bedding provided to give an adequate grip during service. The use of a service crate may be advantageous.

50. Where injury to other animals is likely to occur, boars' tusks should be trimmed by a veterinary surgeon.

Emergencies and fire prevention

51. Farmers should make advance plans for dealing with emergencies such as fire, flood or disruption of supplies, and should ensure that all staff are familiar with the appropriate emergency action.

52. Fire precautions should be a major priority for every stockkeeper. Expert advice should be sought from the States of Jersey Fire Brigade.

53. In the design of new buildings, or the alteration of existing buildings, there should be provision, wherever possible, for livestock to be released and evacuated in case of emergency. Materials used in construction should have sufficient fire resistance to enable emergency procedures to be followed. It should, however, be borne in mind that it will not always be possible to make full use of escape routes, since experience shows that pigs in the immediate vicinity of a fire may either refuse to move or, if moved, try to return to their accustomed quarters.

54. All electrical, gas and oil services should be planned and fitted so that if there is overheating, or flame is generated, the risk of flame spreading to equipment, bedding or the fabric of the building is minimal. It is advisable to site power supply controls outside buildings. Consideration should be given to installing fire alarm systems which can be heard and acted upon at any time of the day or night.

Additional recommendations for pigs kept outdoors

55. Where pigs are kept outside there should be sufficient floor space within the huts provided to allow all animals in a group to lie down together at any one time. Adequate bedding materials to enable the pigs to maintain body temperature should be provided.

56. Huts should be secured to the ground by means of stakes or pins and their entrance should be position away from the direction of the main prevailing winds.

57. Adequate shelter in winter and shade in summer should be available to all pigs. All pigs can suffer from heat stress, the provision of a wallow or sprinkler in hot weather can be beneficial and also help to prevent white pigs suffering from sunburn.

58. Strange boars should not be mixed with other boars as this can lead to fighting and unnecessary injury. Groups of boars reared together can be left as a group as the pecking order has been established.

59. Individual huts should be provided for sows, when they are near to giving birth. It is preferable that an individual paddock is provided for a gilt giving birth.

60. A sow should have bedding available on entering her farrowing paddock to enable her to exhibit her natural nest building behaviour. A temperature suitable for piglets should be maintained in the nest by the provision of adequate bedding materials, preferably straw. Excessive bedding in the first 3 to 4 days after the piglets are born should be avoided as newly born piglets can get tangled up resulting in overlaying by the sow. Fresh bedding should thereafter be provided 2 to 3 times a week.

61. Suitable restrainer boards should be used at the entrance of the farrowing hut to prevent very young piglets from straying and becoming lost and chilled.

62. Stocking rates for land used for pig breeding throughout the year should not exceed 2.25 sows and boars per vergee. A stocking rate of 7 growing pigs per vergee is recommended for land used to rear young pigs from weaning up to slaughter at between 80 and 100 kilograms. Increased stocking rates can be used on land that contains pigs for less than 1 year.

64. Electric fencing should be erected according to manufacture's instructions and be efficiently maintained to stop pigs from straying. Pigs should be trained with reference to the effects of electric fencing for 2 to 3 days before they are turned out into field paddocks.

Handling and transportation

65. Pigs should not be handled or transported using excessive noise or force or in a way which causes or is likely to cause injury or suffering to that animal.

66. No pig should be transported unless it is fit for the intended journey and suitable provision has been made for its care during the journey and on its arrival at the place of destination.

67. A pig shall not be considered fit to travel if it is ill, injured, infirm, fatigued or is likely to give birth on the journey.

68. The means of transport, or the receptacle in which the pig is placed, shall be constructed, maintained and operated so as to avoid injury and unnecessary suffering and to ensure the safety of the animals during transport, loading and unloading. It should also be escape proof.

69. Any floor on which the pigs stand or walk during loading, unloading or transport shall be sufficiently strong to bear their weight and constructed, maintained and operated to prevent slipping and injury.

70. Means of transport and other receptacle used to contain pigs should be free from any sharp edges and projections likely to cause injury or unnecessary suffering.

71. Means of transport or receptacle used to contain pigs shall have sufficient lighting to enable the proper care and inspection of any animal being carried.

72. Means of transport and receptacles shall be constructed, maintained and operated so as to allow appropriate cleaning and disinfection.

73. The accommodation for the carriage of pigs shall be such that the animals are provided with adequate space to stand and lie down in their natural position. In order to comply with these minimum requirements, the loading density for pigs of around 100 kilograms should not exceed 235 kilograms per square metre. The breed, size and physical condition of the pigs may mean that the minimum surface area given above has to be increased. In very warm weather conditions an increase in the above surface area of approximately 20% will be required because of the pigs susceptibility to heat stress.

74. Means of transport and receptacles used to contain pigs must provide adequate ventilation and sufficient air space above the animal to allow air to circulate properly.

75. Partitions shall be used, if they are necessary, to provide adequate support for animals and to prevent animals being thrown about during transport. Partitions should be of rigid construction strong enough to withstand the weight of any animal thrown against it and positioned so that they do not interfere with ventilation.

76. Every ramp which is carried or forms part of a vehicle used to transport pigs shall be constructed, maintained and operated to prevent slipping. Ramp angles should not exceed 20 degrees. Any steps or gaps should be designed to avoid injury and suffering to the animal being moved. The sides of any ramp should be protected to prevent animals from falling or escaping.

77. No excessive force should be used to load, unload or transport pigs. The use of any stick, goad or other instrument or thing to hit or prod pigs is not recommended. The use of barriers, erected prior to pigs being moved, with hand boards and flat slapsticks to aid movement is the preferred method of loading pigs. Slap sticks must not have sharp projections or pointed ends.

78. The following animals should not be carried in an individual vehicle, pen or receptacle with other animals: a breeding boar over the age of 6 months (including boars with other boars, unless they have been reared in a compatible group) or a sow accompanied by her piglets.

79. Pigs should be segregated from other species, unless separation from their companion animal would cause either of the animals distress. A carcass of a dead animal should not be transported with live pigs. Animals that die in transit must be removed as soon as possible.

80. Pigs should be segregated whilst in transit with due regard to their differences in age, size and temperament, with partitions used if necessary, to avoid injury and unnecessary suffering that could be caused to one or all of the animals.

81. Whilst in transit all animals should be in the charge of a person who has been suitably trained to provide the necessary care and attention to safeguard their welfare.

Pigs welfare code in Portuguese

Poultry

The code identifies good stockmanship as a key factor in animal welfare and this code is an essential tool for every poultry keeper. Everyone involved with domestic fowl should read it carefully and to bear its recommendations in mind at all times.

Stockmanship is a key factor because no matter how otherwise acceptable a system may be in principle, without competent, diligent stockmanship the welfare of the birds cannot be adequately catered for. The recommendations which follow are designed to help poultry keepers, particularly those who are young or inexperienced, to attain the required standards.

Duck welfare code

Turkey welfare code

Introduction

1. The welfare of domestic fowls can be safeguarded and their physiological and behavioural needs met under a variety of management systems. The system, and the number and the stocking rate of birds kept at any one time, should depend on the suitability of the conditions and the skill of the poultry keeper.

2. Consideration should be given to the question of animal welfare before installing more complex or elaborate equipment that has previously been used. In general the greater the restriction imposed on the bird and the greater the complexity of the system or of the degree of control which is exercised over temperature, air flow or food supply, the less the bird is able to use its instinctive behaviour to modify the effect of unfavourable conditions and the greater the chance of suffering if mechanical or electrical failures occur. Thus systems involving a high degree of control over the environment should only be installed where conscientious staff skilled in both animal husbandry and the use of the equipment will always be available.

3. Large flocks can be managed successfully, but in general the larger the size of the unit the greater the degree of skill and conscientiousness needed to safeguard welfare. The size of a unit should not be increased nor should a unit be set up unless it is reasonably certain that the person in charge will be able to safeguard the welfare of the individual bird.

4. All poultry keepers should know the normal behaviour of domestic fowls and watch closely for signs of distress or disease and, where necessary, take prompt remedial action.

5. The good poultry keeper will know the signs which indicate good health in domestic fowls. He should be able to recognise impending trouble in its earliest stages and may often be able to identify the cause and put matters right immediately. If the cause is not obvious or if the keeper's immediate action is not effective, veterinary or other expert advice should be obtained as soon as possible.

6. Important indications of health are alertness, clear bright eyes, good posture, vigorous movements if unduly disturbed, active feeding and drinking, and clean and healthy skin, shanks and feet. Attention should be paid to any departure from the normal.

7. The early signs of ill-health may include changes in:

  • food and water intake
  • preening
  • chatter
  • activity

In laying birds there may also be a drop in egg production and changes in egg quality such as shell defects.

8. Ailing birds, and any birds suffering from injury such as open wounds or fractures, or from prolapse of the vent should be segregated and treated or, if necessary, be humanely killed without delay.

Housing

9. Advice on welfare aspects should be sought when new buildings are to be constructed or existing buildings modified. Some intensive systems depend on specialised buildings and complex mechanical and electrical equipment, which require a high level of technical and managerial skills to ensure that husbandry and welfare requirements are met. Consideration should be given to the incorporation of weighing, handling and loading facilities.

10. Ventilation, heating, lighting, feeding, watering and all other equipment should be designed, sited and installed so as to avoid risk of injuring birds.

11. All floors, particularly slatted or metal mesh ones, and perches should be designed, fitted and maintained so as to avoid distress or injury to the birds. Remedial action should be taken if any of these occurs.

12. Even where ladders are provided, nest boxes, roosting areas and perches should not be so high above floor level that birds have difficulty in using them or risk injury.

13. There is usually some warning of interruptions in the supply of feeding stuffs and, so far as possible, arrangements should be made to lay in adequate stocks of feed or water to offset the worst effects of such a contingency.

Ventilation and temperature

14. Ventilation rates and house conditions should at all times be adequate to provide sufficient fresh air for the birds. In particular, accumulations should be avoided of:

  • ammonia
  • hydrogen sulphide
  • carbon dioxide
  • carbon monoxide
  • dust

15. Care should be taken to protect confined birds from draughts in cold conditions.

16. Birds should not be exposed to strong direct sunlight or hot surroundings long enough to cause heat stress as indicated by prolonged panting.

17. Young chicks should not be subjected to conditions which cause either panting due to the overheating or prolonged huddling and feather ruffling due to underheating. Every effort should be made to avoid creating conditions which will lead to:

  • chilling
  • huddling
  • subsequent smothering

18. Close confinement affects the birds' ability to maintain their normal body temperature, but under any management system ambient temperatures hot enough to cause prolonged panting may occur, particularly when humidity is relatively high. All accommodation should therefore be so designed that even when fully stocked its ventilation is adequate to protect the birds from overheating under any weather conditions that can reasonably be foreseen.

Stocking rates

19. Irrespective of the type of enclosure or system of management used, all domestic fowls should have sufficient freedom of movement to be able, without difficulty, to stand normally, turn around and stretch their wings. They should also have sufficient space to be able to perch or sit down without interference from other birds.

20. It cannot be too strongly emphasised that birds kept under any system can be prone to stress, injury and disease if management and husbandry are not of a high standard. Within the present limits of scientific knowledge it is not possible to relate stocking rate to welfare in any simple manner. Stocking rate is only one aspect of a complex situation involving such things as:

  • breed
  • strain and type of bird
  • colony size
  • temperature
  • ventilation
  • lighting
  • quality of housing

The observance of any particular rate cannot, by itself, ensure the welfare of the birds.

21. The following figures are a guide to the maximum stocking rates acceptable in most circumstances for domestic fowl husbandry systems. These rates may be safely increased where suitable perching is provided.

A perch of not less than 15 centimetre is generally appropriate for a bird. However, even where such perching is provided for every bird, stocking should not be more than 11.7 birds per square metre of available floor space.

​Maximum stocking rates per husbandry system

Deep litter system

Density (live weight in relation to floor area)Qualifications
Birds reared for laying17 kg per sq. m.
Not applicable
Adult laying birds17 kg per sq. m.
Max. 7 birds per sq. m.
Table chickens34 kg per sq. m.
Not applicable
Housing of free-range birdsAs for deep litter systemsNot applicable

22. If disease, particularly respiratory, or any vice becomes evident, expert qualified advice should be sought to deal with the problem. Stocking and ventilation rates should also be checked and variations in stocking and ventilation should be considered in order to minimise the likelihood of recurrence of the problem

Management

Feed and water

23. Birds should have easy access to adequate, nutritious, and hygienic feed each day, and to adequate fresh water at all times except in the case of therapeutic or prophylactic treatment. Care should be taken at each change of system to ensure that the birds find the feed and water points.

24. Stale or contaminated feed or water should not be allowed to accumulate and should be replaced immediately. Efforts should be made to minimise the risk of drinking water freezing. Feed stores should be vermin proof.

25. In no circumstances should birds be induced to moult by withholding feed and water.

Husbandry

26. Frequent inspection of the stock is essential because the condition and reactions of the birds are the main guides to their welfare. An inspection must be made at least once daily in addition to the looking-over which birds receive during routine management work Injured or dead birds should be removed promptly, as should individual sick birds.

27. It is desirable to establish a regular work routine. Care should be taken not to frighten the birds with sudden unaccustomed movement or noise, but without placing too much emphasis on quietness.

28. Precautions should be taken by adequate control measures to protect the birds from and avoid disturbances by rodents and other animals.

29. Mouldy litter should not be used. There should be frequent checks to ensure that litter does not become excessively wet or dry, or infested with mites or other harmful organisms.

30. Premises and equipment should be regularly cleansed. Thorough disinfection should be carried out before restocking and at other suitable times to reduce the danger of continuing infection.

31. Vaccinations, injections and similar procedures should be undertaken by competent, trained operators. Care should be taken to avoid injury and unnecessary disturbances of the birds.

32. Artificial insemination is a highly-skilled procedure and can be carried out only in accordance with a licence issued by the Minister for Planning and Environment.

33. A programme to control vermin, without endangering the birds, should be in place.

Beak trimming

34. Beak trimming should be avoided by using suitable management practices but if it is necessary it should be done but only by a knowledgeable skilled operator or under his supervision.

Dubbing

35. If dubbing is necessary it must be done hygienically within the first 72 hours of life, using curved scissors. Dubbing of older birds is a difficult and severe operation which must be done only by a veterinary surgeon.

Toe cutting

36. To avoid injury to hens during mating, the last joint of the inside toes of male breeding birds may be removed. This must be done hygienically within the first 72 hours of life. A veterinary surgeon must carry out the operation if it is performed after the first 72 hours of life. Toe cutting must not be carried out as a method of identification.

Dewinging

37. Dewinging, pinioning, notching or tendon severing of wing tissues, is mutilation and must not be undertaken. When it is necessary to reduce the effects of flightiness, the flight feathers of one wing may be clipped.

Blinkers

38. The use of blinkers which pierce the nasal septum is illegal. Other forms of blinkering are not recommended.

Castration and devoicing

39. Surgical castration and devoicing must not be undertaken.

Emergencies and fire prevention

40. In the design of new buildings or alteration of existing ones there should be provision for livestock to be released and evacuated quickly in the case of an emergency. Materials used in construction should have sufficient fire resistance and adequate doors and other escape routes should be provided to enable an emergency procedure to be followed in the event of a fire. Where possible the storage of straw should be kept separate from livestock accommodation, this will reduce the risk of fire and smoke.

Handling and transport

41. The proper handling of birds requires skill, and it should be undertaken only by competent persons who have been appropriately trained. It should be carried out quietly and confidently, exercising care to avoid unnecessary struggling which could bruise or otherwise injure the birds. Care must be taken in catching birds in loose housed systems in order to avoid creating panic and subsequent injury to and smothering of the birds.

Growing and adult birds

42. The design, size and state of repair of any container used to carry birds should allow them to be put in, conveyed and taken out without injury. Care should also be taken when crates are loaded on to vehicles and in their transportation and unloading. Adequate ventilation for the birds is essential at all times.

43. Birds should be protected from bad weather and from excessively hot or cold conditions. They should not be allowed to become stressed (as indicated by prolonged panting) by being left in containers exposed to strong direct sunlight.

Additional recommendations for range birds

Management

44. Land on which range birds are kept for prolonged periods may become fowl sick. For example, it may become contaminated with organisms which cause or carry disease to an extent which could seriously prejudice the health of poultry on the land.

The time taken for land to become fowl sick depends on the type of land and density of stocking. The stocking rate to be used should generally not exceed 200 birds per vergee. Heavy, poorly drained soil can carry fewer birds than land which is light and well drained. In general, land can be stocked more heavily by birds in small flocks of 100 or so when accommodated in well spaced and regularly moved houses than when kept in larger flocks in static houses.

Flocks and portable houses should be moved regularly to avoid fowl sick or continuously muddy conditions leading to ill-health or discomfort of the birds.

45. It's important to ensure that the land to which the birds have access is adequately covered with suitable, properly managed vegetation.

46. Precautions should be taken to protect the birds against predators, dogs and cats.

47. Shelter from rain and sun should always be available.

Housing

48. Housing used by range birds should be of sufficient standard to ensure that the birds are not subject to distress caused by extremes of temperature.

49. When birds are transferred to range houses, precautions should be taken to avoid overcrowding and suffocation, particularly during the first few nights.

Cannibalism is a danger under this system, and birds should not be confined for too long during hours of daylight or subjected to direct sunlight during confinement.

50. All birds must have ready access to range and there should be sufficient openings spaced and of sufficient size to allow a reasonable proportion of birds to enter or leave at any one time.

51. Unless the house is moved frequently it's good practice to protect the ground immediately adjacent to it. By providing, for example:

  • slatted or wire mesh platforms
  • covered verandas or areas of gravel

Feed and water

52. Feed and water should never be allowed to remain in a stale or contaminated condition. In freezing conditions, particular attention should be given to the provision of water.

Poultry transportation welfare requirements
Poultry welfare code in Portuguese

Rabbit

Introduction

 1. The welfare of rabbits can be safeguarded under a range of management systems which should promote good health and cater for the behavioural and physiological needs of the rabbit. The number of animals kept at any one time and the way in which they are grouped will depend on the facilities available and the skill of the stockkeeper.

2. Rabbits need individual and frequent attention. It is essential that the stockkeeper should know and watch for signs of distress or disease and take prompt remedial action.

3. The stockkeeper should be able to recognise the signs which indicate good health be able to recognise impending trouble in its earliest stages. Advice or treatment should be sought promptly from your veterinary surgeon.

4. Ailing or injured rabbits should be segregated wherever possible and treated immediately.

The British Veterinary Association website

Housing

5. Accommodation should be designed and maintained to avoid injury or distress to the rabbits. In open-sided buildings or other enclosures which are exposed to the weather, rabbits in cages should be provided with adequate protection from the elements.

6. Shelter from bad weather must be provided, including from direct sunlight. The hutch should be positioned away from draughts and extremes of temperature and, preferably near to the owner's house. In the winter the rabbit hutch can be placed in a well ventilated airy garage or shed although a garage in use is not suitable as exhaust fumes can poison rabbits.

7. Hutches must be kept dry, free of dramatic fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity and be adequately ventilated, but protected from drafts.

8. Internal surfaces of pens, hutches or cages should be of a material which can be effectively cleaned and disinfected, or easily replaced when necessary.

9. The hutch should be raised off the ground, as this will protect the cage and its occupant from damp, and also from vermin.

10. Cages or pens should be made of material that is not harmful to the animals, which is durable and will withstand normal cleaning. Material containing paint and wood preservatives which may be toxic to the rabbits should not be used on surfaces accessible to them. Particular care is necessary to guard against the risk of poisoning from old paintwork or when second hand building materials are used.

11. A secure, private place for raising the young, such as a nest or den, should be provided. Nesting material, nest boxes or a secluded and sheltered area within the pen or cage is required. Nesting material also partially allows the animal to manipulate its own immediate environment (noise, temperature and humidity) and provide a warm nest for the young.

12. Care should be taken to monitor and prevent aggression and to separate individuals if necessary.

13. Stud bucks and breeding does should always be housed individually to prevent fighting.

14. Rabbits should be housed in groups, wherever possible with compatible individuals. Post-weaned rabbits should be kept for as long as possible in compatible groups.

15. If solid sided cages are used, these should be positioned such that rabbits can see other rabbits.

16. The social and behavioural needs of rabbits are often ignored when housed individually in small, wire mesh cages or confined to small hutches. There are many welfare implications associated with keeping rabbits in cages, as they are not able to follow their natural instincts. Environmental enrichment, appropriate to the animal's needs, will allow animals to carry out a range of normal behaviours. Restricted environments can lead to behavioural and physiological abnormalities.

17. There're many ways housing for rabbits can be constructed to permit natural behaviour patterns, hence enhancing the welfare of rabbits. For example:

  • appropriate bedding material will provide rabbits with the opportunity to make nests. The use of good quality hay or a similar substance provides interest in an otherwise sterile cage environment and will provide the opportunity for concealment.
  • allowing animals to socialise with their own kind, or with handlers, also helps to achieve enrichment of the environment.
  • rabbits prefer to be close to each other and interact with enrichment objects such as hay blocks, chew sticks, parrot toys or balls designed for cats
  • enrichment in floor pen systems is readily achieved by, for example, making different compartments within a pen and the use of boxes/pipes for concealment.

18. Suitable clean and comfortable bedding material must be provided especially for breeding animals.

19. Exercise is very important for the physical and mental health of rabbits. Immobile rabbits are at increased risk of foot and leg ulcers, osteoporosis and spinal fractures. It has been proved there is a link between confinement and the development of spinal deformities. Exercise helps improve blood circulation and prevent pressure sores. The opportunity to explore is also mentally beneficial.

All methods of providing exercise should be escape proof and allow the rabbit to feel secure. Branches from non-poisonous plants or trees, drainpipes, boxes and other enrichment objects can be placed in the pen to provide cover and play. Branches must not come from trees which have been sprayed with chemicals.

Flooring

20. All floors on which rabbits are kept should be designed, constructed and maintained to avoid injury or distress to the rabbits.

Space allowance

21. When planning new accommodation or modifying existing housing, account should be taken of the size of the breed and natural behaviour of the animals, which includes hopping, sitting with ears erect and playing. Size, shape and fittings of pens and cages should be designed to meet the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals.

22. The floor area must be of sufficient size to allow all the rabbits in the cage to lie comfortably on their sides at the same time and move around without disturbing the others, and eat and drink without difficulty. The rabbits must be able to stand up, lie down and turn around.

23. Hutches should be as big as possible, especially if 2 rabbits are housed together. Hutches need to be situated in a dry, cool, well-ventilated site protected from wind and rain. Hutches of various designs are available but the essentials are a dry draught free secluded nest area and an area for exercise.

A solid fronted nesting area and mesh-fronted living area is usually provided. If kept in the hutch for long periods, the rabbit should be able to perform at least 3 'hops' from one end to the other.

24. Accommodation for rabbits over 12 weeks of age should be not less than 45 centimetre high or sufficient height to allow the rabbits to sit upright with ears fully erect, without their ears touching the top of the cage.

25. A cage of minimum height 45centimetre, with a floor space of 0.56 square metre can accommodate 1 breeding buck or doe.

A doe and litter up to 4 weeks of age, or 8 weaners until they are sold.

Additional height and space will be required for giant rabbit breeds.

26. Accommodation should allow sufficient area so that all rabbits can lie on their sides other than at times when nesting boxes are used.

27. The nest box should be large enough to enable the doe to get into and out of it to feed the young without injuring them.

As a guide, the nest box should be about 40 centimetres by 25 centimetres. The minimum length of the nest box should be 30 centimetres with a minimum floor area of 0.8 square metre. A larger area should be allowed for giant breeds. 3 walls should be 25 centimetres high and the front 15 centimetres in height.

28. The lowest side or end of an open-topped nest should be low enough to enable the doe to enter or leave the nest without risk of injury to herself or her litter, but sufficiently high to prevent the young from leaving the nest prematurely. The sill in the front of the nest box enables the doe to enter without difficulty, but prevents the young from being drawn out on a teat while suckling if the doe is suddenly disturbed.

As a guide, for most breeds, the height of the lowest side or end of the nest box should not be less than 15 centimetres. The nest should have an entrance sufficiently large for the doe to pass through without difficulty or risk of injury.

29. Most nest boxes are made of wood and disinfected before being used again, but some breeders favour stout cardboard boxes which are only used once. The nest boxes are placed on the floor of the cage and most have open tops to allow the young to be inspected easily.

Rabbits kept out of doors

30. Accommodation should be designed and maintained to avoid draughts. Rabbits should have access to a dry-bedded area.

31. Outdoor hutches should be raised off the ground.

32. The hutch roof, which should overhang all sides of the hutch by approximately 10 centimetres to 15 centimetres and slope backwards, should be covered with roofing felt.

33. Shelter from bright sunlight, rain and wind should always be available, and this can be achieved by extending the roof forwards to provide an overhang.

34. Precautions should be taken to protect the rabbits from predators and vermin.

35. Outdoor rabbits must be checked at least once daily, with special attention paid to the area around the bottom in summer months; a build up of faecal material around the bottom, or a rabbit sitting in wet soiled bedding is at high risk from fly strike.

36. Other relevant recommendations in this code of practice regarding rabbit husbandry and management are applicable to rabbits kept outside.

Temperature

37. The optimal temperature range for rabbits is 15 to 20 degree Celsius. Extremes of temperature should be avoided. Temperature regulation should prevent undue fluctuations to avoid unnecessary stress to the animals or clinical welfare problems. Temperature variations in a 24 hour period should not be greater than 5 degree Celsius.

38. If welfare problems occur in the animal because of a failure to maintain suitable temperatures, provision of heating and/or cooling will be required.

39. Excessive heat loss can be prevented by providing adequate bedding material; it is essential to avoid conditions which could cause chilling in young rabbits just leaving the nest. The higher temperature needed by baby rabbits can be achieved by providing nest boxes in which the does can make warm nests.

40. Rabbits can withstand cool weather provided that they have shelter and plenty bedding material. Thin rabbits with no body fat are susceptible to the effects of cold weather.

41. Care should be taken to protect rabbits from draughts in cold conditions.

42. Rabbits are unable to tolerate high ambient temperatures, which can prove fatal. Hot conditions and direct sunlight with no shade are distressing for rabbits as they cannot sweat or pant effectively and do not increase water intake when hot. Appropriate measures must be taken to prevent temperatures rising to the point where heat stress, indicated by prolonged panting, occurs; rabbits are very susceptible to heat stroke.

Lighting

43. During daylight hours, adequate light should be provided to exercise and sleeping areas so that all parts are clearly visible. A proportion of this light should be natural light. Adequate lighting must be available at all times to allow the rabbits to be easily seen and inspected. It may be advantageous to cover the nest box at the time of kittening.

44. Care should be taken to ensure that animals are not placed in direct sunlight.

Ventilation

45. Premises and accommodation must be well ventilated; good ventilation is essential to prevent respiratory disease.

Relative humidity

46. The relative humidity in buildings housing rabbits should normally be maintained between 40% to 70%.

Noise

47. Rabbits are easily frightened by sudden unexpected loud noise. Care should be taken not to frighten the rabbits with sudden unaccustomed movement or noise, but without placing too much emphasis on quietness.

Management

48. It's essential that all rabbits are carefully inspected at least once a day to make certain they are in good bodily condition and have ample supplies of food and water. The suffering caused by faulty husbandry and disease must never be underestimated.

Feed

49. Wholesome food in sufficient quantity to maintain good health should be provided daily.

50. The rabbit's digestive system is adapted to coping with high fibre foods such as hay, grass, root vegetables and herbage. Feeding a varied diet which takes some effort to eat helps relieve boredom, a factor that is especially important for hutched rabbits, and keeps their teeth in trim. Good quality meadow hay should always be available and form 75% of the daily diet. The remainder of the daily diet should be pellets and fresh vegetables.

51. To keep pellets fresh and discourage vermin, pellets should be stored in an airtight container.

52. All food bowls and utensils should be cleaned daily.

Water

53. Clean fresh drinking water must be easily accessible to all rabbits at all times.

54. A lactating doe with a large litter, close to weaning, may drink up to 4.5 litres of water a day. If she is unable to obtain all the water she needs, her milk yield will be reduced and the young will be underfed. Care must be taken to see that the drinkers are working efficiently.

55. All water containers should be cleaned on a daily basis.

Handling

56. Time should be spent grooming and handling the rabbits.

57. Rabbits can be easily frightened and require careful handling. Handling should be carried out quietly and confidently, with care to avoid unnecessary struggling which could injure the animal.

58. The proper handling of rabbits requires skill, and it should be undertaken only by competent persons. A rabbit should be lifted by grasping the loose skin at the back of the neck and its weight supported by placing the hand under the hindquarters. Once held firmly with both hands it can be lifted up and held securely against the handler's chest. Always put a rabbit down gently on a non-slip surface.

59. Rabbits must never be held or picked up by the ears; this is extremely painful and distressing for the animal.

Hygiene

60. Regular maintenance of housing and a high standard of hygiene are essential for the good health and welfare of the animals.

61. Premises, accommodation and equipment must be kept clean.

62. Droppings should be removed regularly, at a minimum of every 2 days.

63. Frequent checks should be made on the state of the bedding.

Animal health

64. Young rabbits must be kept in compatible groups.

65. Rabbits should be inspected at suitable, frequent intervals throughout the day because, once ill, rabbits can deteriorate rapidly.

66. Claw trimming: Claws of confined adult rabbits should be trimmed periodically to prevent toe damage from overgrown nails catching on the hutch or cage. Great care is needed when trimming to avoid damage to sensitive tissue.

67. Overgrowth of teeth can sometimes interfere seriously with feeding and cause damage to the rabbit's lips and mouth. A high fibre diet and provision of wooden gnawing blocks can help to keep teeth in good condition. Problems with teeth should be referred to your veterinary surgeon.

Breeding

68. If you do not wish to breed your rabbit, neutering should be discussed with your veterinary surgeon

69. In general, females are mated for the first time at approximately 5 months old and are not bred from if over 3 years of age. Males are often mated for the first time at approximately 6 months of age.

70. Mating should be supervised. The doe should always be taken to the buck to minimise the possibility of fighting. Serious fighting can occur if the buck is taken to the doe.

71. Does kept in good environmental conditions will remain in oestrus throughout the year. A mating between the third and seventh days after giving birth generally leads to conception, but this practice as a routine is not acceptable on welfare grounds.

72. Does should be assessed for continued suitability for breeding before mating.

73. Care must be taken not to overwork a buck; poor fertility can result.

74. In commercial units, a ratio of 1 buck to 10 does is a common figure, although 1 buck to 15 does is probably adequate.

75. Nesting boxes must be provided for breeding does. Bedding must be provided, for example, good quality hay. The box should be available for about one week prior to littering to permit the doe to exhibit normal nesting behaviour.

76. The nesting area should be designed to contain the young rabbits but be of sufficient size to permit suckling.

77. Litters under a week of age should be disturbed as little as possible.

78. The young rabbits emerge from the nest box at 2 to 3 weeks of age and are generally weaned at 6 weeks. Young rabbits should not be weaned before 4 weeks of age.

Safety

79. Accommodation must be secure to ensure the safety of all of the animals.

Disease

80. All reasonable precautions should be taken to prevent and control the spread of infectious or contagious diseases amongst rabbits. Veterinary advice must be sought where a rabbit shows of disease, injury or illness. A competent person must then ensure that this veterinary advice is followed.

81. Facilities for isolation should be available when required. All hygiene precautions such as hand washing must be taken after leaving the isolation facilities and before handling other rabbits.

Records

82. Accurate records should be kept for each breeding rabbit providing the identification of the:

  • doe
  • date of birth
  • address where she's kept
  • breed
  • date of mating
  • details of sire

Licensed rabbit breeders must also keep a record of any litters, including the:

  • sex of the babies
  • date of birth
  • weight
  • description
  • total number in the litter

The record must also show the details of sale and name and address of purchaser.

83. It's recommended that rabbits are microchipped by a veterinary surgeon. Microchipping is a method of permanent identification.

Transport

84. All vehicles must be secure and should not be left unattended when transporting rabbits. Vehicles use for transportation should have adequate ventilation.

85. All appropriate steps should be taken to ensure that the rabbits are provided with suitable food, drink and bedding material when being transported. This is especially important if confinement is to be prolonged. Time in transit should be kept to a minimum.

86. Animals that are incompatible should not be transported together.

87. Adult rabbits must be moved in individual containers to avoid fighting.

88. The number of animals within any one container must be such that animals can travel in comfort with due regard to the likely journey conditions.

89. Containers should be adequately constructed and ventilated and the rabbits must not be overcrowded.

90. Animals that are to be transported should be in good health.

91. Sick or injured animals should only be transported for purpose of treatment or diagnosis.

Staff training

92. When staff are employed, a written training policy should be provided. Staff training records should be kept.

Emergencies and fire prevention

93. Appropriate step must be taken for the protection of the rabbits in case of fire or other emergencies.

Sheep and goat

The code identifies good stockmanship as a key factor in farm animal welfare and this code is an essential tool for every shepherd. All persons involved with sheep should read it carefully and bear its recommendations in mind at all times.

Stockmanship is a key factor because, no matter how acceptable a system may be in principle, without competent, diligent stockmanship the welfare of sheep cannot be adequately catered for. The recommendations which follow are designed to help shepherds, particularly those who are young or inexperienced, to attain the required standards.

Stockmanship

1. The number and type of sheep kept and the stocking rate should depend on the suitability of the environment and the skills of the shepherd. The qualities of stockmanship are of paramount importance in sheep husbandry, as badly managed and unhealthy sheep cannot thrive.

The shepherd should know the signs which indicate good health in sheep. These include:

  • general alertness
  • free movement
  • active feeding
  • rumination and absence of lameness
  • visible wounds
  • abscesses
  • injuries

2. The signs of ill-health in sheep include:

  • listlessness
  • abnormal posture and behaviour
  • scouring
  • absence of cudding
  • persistent coughing or panting, especially at rest
  • scratching and frequent rubbing
  • rapid loss of bodily condition or poor body condition (which can best be assessed by handling)
  • excessive wool loss
  • sudden fall in milk yield
  • being apart from the flock (in some circumstances)

Where the shepherd is able to identify the cause of ill-health he should take immediate remedial action. If the cause is not obvious, or if the shepherd's action is not effective, veterinary advice should be obtained promptly.

3. When changes are made to sheep husbandry systems which involve installing more complex or elaborate equipment than has previously been used, consideration should be given to animal welfare. Systems involving a high degree of control over the environment should be installed only where conscientious staff skilled in both animal husbandry and the use of the equipment will always be available.

Housing

General

4. Advice should be sought on the construction or modification of buildings.

5. When first housed, sheep should be in a dry condition and if possible free from foot rot. Any foot problems should be treated immediately.

Ventilation and temperature

6. Effective ventilation of buildings is essential.

Buildings and equipment

7. Internal surfaces of housing and pens should be made of materials which can be cleansed and disinfected or be easily replaced when necessary.

8. Surfaces should not be treated with paints or wood preservatives which may cause illness or death.

9. All floors should be designed, constructed and maintained so as to avoid discomfort, distress or injury to the sheep. Regular maintenance is essential. Solid floors should be well-drained and provided with dry bedding. Newly-born and young lambs should not be put on slatted floors.

10. Water bowls and troughs should be constructed and sited so as to avoid fouling and to minimise the risk of water freezing in cold weather. They should be kept thoroughly clean and should be checked at least once daily and more frequently in extreme conditions, to ensure that they are in working order. They should be designed and installed in a way that will ensure small lambs cannot get into them and drown.

11. For sheep given concentrate feed, when all animals are fed together, it's important to have adequate trough space to avoid competition and aggression. In normal practice, approximately 30 centimetres of trough space is needed for small breed ewes and approximately 45 centimetres for the larger lowland ewes. Excessive competition is detrimental to sheep welfare.

12. When feeding hay and silage ad lib., trough space should normally be provided within the range 10 to 12 centimetres per ewe, dependent upon size. Racks and troughs should be positioned and designed to avoid injury, discomfort and damage to sheep.

Lighting

13. Throughout the hours of daylight the level of indoor lighting, natural or artificial, should be such that all housed sheep can be seen clearly. In addition, adequate lighting for satisfactory inspection should be available at any time.

Space allowance

14. The space allowance and group size for housed sheep should be determined according to the age, size and class of stock.

​Space allowance for sheep​
Type of stock
Floor space allowance (in sq m)
Lowland ewes (60 to 90 kg live weight)1.2 to 1.4 per ewe during pregnancy
Lowland ewes after lambing with lambs at foot up to 6 weeks of age2.0 to 2.2 per ewe and lambs
Small breed ewes (45 to 65 kg live weight)1.0 to 1.2 per ewe during pregnancy
Small breed ewes after lambing with lambs at foot up to 6 weeks of age1.8 to 2.0 per ewe and lambs
Lambs up to 12 weeks old0.5 to 0.6 per lamb
Lambs and sheep 12 weeks to 12 months old0.75 to 0.9 per lamb or sheep
Rams1.5 to 2.0

Management

General

15. All fields and buildings should be kept clear of debris such as wire or plastic, which could be harmful to sheep.

16. When sheep are outdoors in winter, and particularly when fed on root crops, they should be allowed either to run back to pasture or to a straw bedded area, which gives a more comfortable lying area as well as limiting the build-up of mud or dung on the fleece. Where there is no natural shelter for the sheep, artificial shelter should be provided, for example, the placement of straw bales.

Marking

17. Permanent marking of sheep by, for example, ear tattooing or tagging, should be carried out by a skilled shepherd using properly maintained instruments. Ear tags should be suitable for use in sheep. Wherever possible, marking should not be undertaken during the fly season. If marking does have to be carried out during the fly season, farmers should take measures which will prevent or reduce the threat of fly strike. Where, for flock management purposes, ear marking is by notching or punching, this should be done using proprietary equipment. If horned breeds of sheep are to be marked for flock management purposes, horn branding is preferred.

18. Aerosols or paints used for temporary marking should be non-toxic.

Handling

19. Adequate and safe holding and handling facilities should be available and these should not have sharp edges, projections or other features likely to cause injury to the sheep.

20. Sheep should not be caught by the fleece alone. They should be handled or restrained by the means of a hand or arm under the neck (holding the neck wool if necessary) with the other arm placed on or around the rear. Lifting or dragging sheep by the fleece, tail, ears, horns or legs is unacceptable. Care should be taken with the horns, which may be broken off if sheep are roughly handled.

21. Devices such as raddles, harnesses, hobbles, tethers and yokes should be:

  • of suitable material
  • be properly fitted and adjusted to avoid causing injury or discomfort
  • not be used for longer than necessary

Tethering by the horns is unacceptable.

Fencing and hedges

22. Fences and hedges should be well maintained so as to avoid injury to the sheep and prevent entanglement. Where any type of mesh fencing is used, particularly for horned sheep, and around lambing fields, it should be checked frequently so that any animals which are caught can be released.

23. Electric fences should be designed, installed, used and maintained so that contact with them does not cause more than momentary discomfort to the sheep. Electric mesh fencing should not be used for horned sheep.

Shearing

24. Every mature sheep should have its fleece removed at least once a year.

25. Shearers should be experienced, competent and have received adequate training in shearing techniques. Inexperienced shearers should be supervised by suitably competent staff. When shearing, care should be taken not to cut the skin of the sheep. Where a wound does occur, immediate treatment should be given.

26. Shearers should clean and disinfect their equipment between flocks to minimise the spreading of disease.

27. Care should be taken when turning out sheep which were sheared while they were housed. In winter ewes should not be turned out within 2 months of shearing and even then only in suitable weather conditions and with adequate shelter arrangements. If an effective natural windbreak is not available, other methods of shelter such as straw bales should be provided.

28. Winter shearing should not be carried out, unless the sheep are housed.

Tail docking

29. The anal and vulva regions of sheep are sensitive areas. Care must be taken to ensure that sufficient tail is retained to cover the vulva in the case of female sheep and the anus in the case of male sheep. Tail docking must be carried out only in strict accordance with the law by a competent trained operator and after careful consideration whether it is necessary.

Under the Animal Welfare (Jersey) Law 2004 the tail docking of lambs, by the use of a rubber ring or other device to restrict the flow of blood to the tail, without anaesthetic, is only allowed if the device is applied during the first week of life.

Castration

30. Farmers and shepherds should consider carefully if castration is necessary or if lambs can be finished and sent to slaughter before reaching sexual maturity. It should only be carried out when lambs are likely to be retained after puberty and where it is necessary to avoid welfare problems associated with the management of entire males. Castration must be carried out only in strict accordance with the law by a competent trained operator.

It's not permitted to castrate a lamb without an anaesthetic, other than by using:

  • a rubber ring or other device to restrict the flow of blood to the scrotum, if the device is applied during the first week of life
  • Burdizzo pliers or by using a scalpel blade if the operation is performed before the animal reaches the age of 2 months

31. When tail docking and castration are both deemed necessary, carrying out both procedures at the same handling should be considered to minimise disruption and the likelihood of mis-mothering.

Dehorning or disbudding

32. Dehorning or disbudding of a sheep by a lay person is against the law, except for the trimming of ingrowing insensitive tip of an ingrowing horn which, if left untreated, could cause pain and distress.

It's not permitted to dehorn or disbud a sheep, without anaesthetic, except the trimming of the insensitive tip of an ingrowing horn which, if left untreated, could cause pain or distress.

Foot care

33. Regular inspection to assess the condition of the feet should be carried out. A foot care programme may include careful foot paring and use of a footbath. Foot paring is a skilled procedure and can damage feet if carried out incorrectly or excessively, therefore, must only be carried out by a competent operator.

Fencing

34. Electric mesh fencing should not be used for horned sheep. Electric fences should be so designed, installed, used and maintained that contact with them does not cause more than momentary discomfort to the sheep. Where any type of mesh fencing is used and in particular for horned sheep and around lambing fields it should be inspected frequently.

Feed and water

35. Sheep should have access to sufficient food and fresh, clean water at all times. They should not be deprived of food or water for management purposes, for example to dry off ewes or to reduce condition of over-finished sheep.

36. Care should be taken to ensure that the diet is always adequate to maintain full health and vigour.

37. Any stale or contaminated food should be removed from troughs and boxes before further food is added. Stored foods, such as hay and silage, should be palatable and of good quality.

38. Care should be taken that compound feeds do not contain unsuitable additives. Compound feeds prepared for other species should be avoided as certain substances contained within these, such as copper, can be toxic to sheep at levels which are safe for other species.

39. Sheep with poor teeth, for example, broken-mouthed, should be provided with food which they can eat without difficulty.

40. Arrangements should be made in advance to ensure that adequate supplies of suitable food can be made available to sheep in emergencies.

Health

41. Sheep should be regularly inspected for signs of injury, fly strike, illness or distress. Frequent inspection is required in intensive systems, during lambing, and in the period before and after clipping and dipping.

42. Any injured, ailing or distressed sheep should be treated without delay and veterinary advice sought when necessary. Provision should be made for the segregation and care of seriously sick and injured animals.

43. Shepherds should be experienced and competent in the prevention and treatment of:

  • foot rot
  • the techniques of lambing
  • injecting
  • oral dosing
  • tail docking
  • castration of lambs

44. The health of flocks can best be safeguarded by the use of vaccination, foot care and worming programmes based on veterinary advice.

45. Special care should be taken to ensure that all equipment used in worming, vaccination and other treatment is maintained to a satisfactory standard. Equipment used for any injections should be frequently cleansed and sterilised to avoid infections. Disposable needles should be used whenever possible. Dosing gun nozzles should be of a suitable size for the age of the sheep.

46. It's essential that all practical measures be taken to prevent or control external and internal parasitic infestations. Where infestations such as fly strike are likely to occur, sheep should be protected by preventive treatment such as dipping, or other effective method.

Pregnancy and lambing

47. Heavily pregnant ewes should be handled with care to avoid distress and injury which may result in premature lambing.

48. Pregnant and nursing ewes should receive sufficient food to ensure the development of healthy lambs and to maintain the health and bodily condition of the ewe. Scanning, to enable appropriate grouping and feeding is a very useful management aid.

49. Stockmen should pay particular attention to cleanliness and hygiene of equipment and pens. Personal cleanliness is also essential when assisting ewes to lamb. Every effort should be made to prevent the build up and spread of infection by ensuring that lambing pens are provided with adequate clean bedding and are regularly cleansed and disinfected. It is particularly important to ensure that dead lambs and afterbirth are removed and disposed of without delay, preferably by incineration.

50. Any ewe with a prolapse should be treated immediately using an appropriate technique and where necessary veterinary advice should be sought.

51. It is vital that every newly born lamb receives colostrum from its dam, or from another source, as soon as possible and in any case within 6 hours of birth. Adequate supplies of colostrum should always be stored for emergencies or adequate stocks of proprietary colostrum replacer are available.

52. Shepherds should be trained in resuscitation such as feeding by stomach tube. Some form of heating, for example, warmer box, should be available to revive weakly lambs. Where lambing takes place out of doors some form of shelter or windbreak should be available.

Artificial rearing

53. Artificial rearing can give rise to problems and requires close attention to detail and high standards of supervision and stockmanship to be successful. It is essential that the lambs should be allowed to suck the ewe for at least the first 12 hours of life.

54. All lambs should receive an adequate amount of suitable liquid food at regular intervals each day during their first 4 weeks of life. From the end of the second week of life, lambs should also have access to palatable and nutritious solid food (which may be grass) and fresh clean water.

55. Troughs should be kept clean and any stale food removed. Equipment and utensils used for liquid feeding should be thoroughly cleansed at regular and frequent intervals and should be effectively sterilised.

56. A dry bed and adequate ventilation should be provided at all times. Where necessary, arrangements should be made to provide safe supplementary heating for very young lambs.

57. For at least the first 3 weeks of life housed lambs should be kept in small groups.

58. Where young lambs are being reared at pasture, care should be taken to ensure that they have adequate shelter.

Hazards

59. To minimise the risk of sheep being unable to gain shelter, great care should be taken in siting shelters, shelter belts and fences. All sheep should be removed from areas which are in danger of being flooded.

60. Young lambs should be protected as far as possible from hazards such as open drains and predators.

61. Any dog is a potential hazard to sheep and should be kept under control on agricultural land. Sheep dogs should be properly trained so that they do not grip sheep.

62. When sheep are near built-up areas, greater care, supervision and more frequent inspections will be necessary.

Milk sheep

Management

63. Milk sheep flocks will require especially vigilant stockmanship to ensure that the health and welfare of the flock is maintained. The shepherd should be aware of the specific problems relevant to the system and the ways in which these may be avoided.

64. Milk sheep are naturally prolific and it is important that care is taken to provide an adequate level of nutrition during pregnancy.

65. The entrances and exits to buildings and fields should be maintained in a dry condition and routine methods of foot rot prevention, for example foot baths or vaccination should be used.

66. Where lambs are artificially reared there should be adequate provision for housing and feeding.

67. The welfare of unwanted lambs should not be neglected. This should include the use of suitable rearing systems. Unwanted lambs should be euthanised in an expeditious and humane manner.

Milking practices

68. Special attention should be paid to milking techniques, the adjustment of milking equipment and dairy hygiene.

69. Hygiene measures should be adopted to reduce the spread of disease.

Milking parlours and equipment

70. Pens, ramps, milking parlours and milking equipment should be properly designed, constructed and maintained.

71. It is essential to ensure that milking machines are functioning correctly by proper maintenance and adjustment of vacuum levels, pulsation rates and ratios, taking account of manufacturers' recommendations.

Mechanical equipment and services

72. All equipment and services including drinkers, milking machines, ventilating fans, heating and lighting units, fire extinguishers and alarm systems, should be cleaned and inspected regularly and kept clean and in good working order. Any automated equipment should incorporate a fail-safe device maintained in good working order and, where the sheep's welfare is dependent upon such equipment, an alarm system should also be installed to warn the shepherd of failure. These should be regularly tested. Defects should be rectified immediately or alternative measures taken to safeguard the health and welfare of the sheep.

73. All electrical installations at mains voltage should be inaccessible to sheep, well insulated, safeguarded from rodents and properly earthed.

Emergencies and fire prevention

74. Farmers should make advance plans for dealing with emergencies such as fire, flood or disruption of supplies, and should ensure that all staff are familiar with the appropriate emergency action. At least one responsible member of staff should always be available to take the necessary action.

75. In the design of new buildings or alterations of existing ones, there should be provision for livestock to be released and evacuated quickly in case of emergency. Materials used in construction should have sufficient fire resistance to enable safe evacuation to take place. Adequate doors and other escape routes should be provided to enable emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a fire. Expert advice on all fire precautions including advice on the installation of firefighting equipment is obtainable from the Fire Safety Officer.

76. All electrical, gas and oil services should be planned and fitted so that if there is overheating, or flame is generated, the risk of flame spreading to equipment, bedding or the fabric of the building is minimal. Consideration should be given to installing fire alarm systems which can be heard and acted upon at any time of the day or night.

77. In case a 999 call has to be made, notice should be prominently displayed in all livestock buildings stating where the nearest telephone is located, each telephone should have fixed by it a notice giving instructions for the Fire Brigade on the best route to the farm.

Transport

Sheep should only be transported in accordance with the provisions of The Diseases of Animals (Welfare in Transit) (Jersey) Order 2001.

78. Sheep should be transported in a way that does not or is not likely to cause suffering.

79. Sheep should only be transported if they are fit for the intended journey. An animal is not considered fit for its intended journey if it is ill, injured, infirm or fatigued and the intended journey is likely to cause it unnecessary suffering.

80. An unfit sheep may be transported only if it's being taken for veterinary treatment or diagnosis and then only provided that it's transported in a way which is not going to cause it further suffering. It's advisable to consult a veterinary surgeon before undertaking such transport.

Sheep welfare code in Portuguese

Turkey

The code identifies good stockmanship as a key factor in farm animal welfare. This code is an essential tool for every stockkeeper. All involved in the rearing and production of turkeys should read it carefully and to bear its recommendations in mind at all times.

Without competent, diligent stockmanship the welfare of the birds cannot be adequately catered for. The recommendations which follow are designed to help stockkeeper, particularly those who are young or inexperienced, to attain the required standards.

Introduction

1. The welfare of turkeys can be safeguarded and their physiological and behavioural needs met under a variety of management systems. The system, and the number and the stocking rate of birds kept at any one time, should depend on the suitability of the conditions and the skills of the stockkeeper.

2. Consideration should be given to the question of animal welfare before installing more complex or elaborate equipment than has previously been used. In general the greater the restriction imposed on the bird and the greater the complexity of the system or of the degree of control which is exercised over:

  • temperature
  • air flow
  • food supply

The less the bird is able to use its instinctive behaviour to modify the effect of unfavourable conditions and the greater the chance of suffering if mechanical or electrical failures occur. Therefore systems involving a high degree of control over the environment should only be installed where conscientious staff skilled in both animal husbandry and the use of the equipment will always be available.

3. Large flocks can be managed successfully, but in general the larger the size of unit the greater the degree of skill and conscientiousness needed to safeguard welfare. The size of a unit should not be increased nor should a unit be set up unless it is reasonably certain that the stockkeeper in charge will be able to safeguard the welfare of the individual bird.

4. All stockkeepers should know the normal behaviour of turkeys, watch closely for signs of distress or disease and, where necessary, take prompt remedial action.

5. Good stockkeepers will know the signs which indicate good health in turkeys. They should be able to recognise impending trouble in its earliest stages and may often be able to identify the cause and put matters right immediately. If the cause is not obvious or if the stockkeeper's immediate action is not effective, veterinary or other expert advice should be obtained as soon as possible.

6. Important indications of health are:

  • alertness
  • clear bright eyes
  • good posture
  • vigorous movements if unduly disturbed
  • active feeding and drinking
  • clean healthy skin, shanks and feet

Attention should be paid to any departure from the normal.

7. The early signs of ill-health may include changes in:

  • feed and water intake
  • preening
  • "chatter"
  • activity

In laying birds there may also be a drop in egg production, and changes in egg quality such as shell defects.

8. Ailing birds, and any birds suffering from injury such as open wounds or fractures or from prolapse of the vent should be segregated and treated or, if necessary, be humanely killed without delay.

Housing

9. Advice on welfare aspects should be sought when new buildings are to be constructed or existing buildings modified. Some intensive systems depend on specialised buildings and complex mechanical and electrical equipment, which require a high level of technical and managerial skills to ensure that husbandry and welfare requirements are met. Considerations should be given to the incorporation of facilities for:

  • weighing
  • handling
  • loading

10. Equipment should be designed, sited and installed so as to avoid risk of injuring birds, including:

  • ventilation
  • heating
  • lighting
  • feeding
  • watering
  • other equipment

11. All floors, particularly slatted or metal mesh ones, should be designed, fitted and maintained so as to avoid injury or distress to the birds. Remedial action should be taken if either of these occurs.

12. Nest boxes, and perches if used, should not be so high above floor level that birds have difficulty or risk injury in using them.

13. Accommodation should be designed and maintained so as to minimise discomfort, distress or injury to the birds.

14. The type and arrangement of accommodation should allow for efficient working and for each bird to be properly inspected.

15. Accommodation should be of sufficient height to allow standing birds free movement of the head and neck. Part of the floor area for adult birds should be solid. In the case of adult breeding males the whole of the floor area should be solid.

Ventilation and temperature

16. Ventilation rates and house conditions should at all times be adequate to provide sufficient fresh air for the birds. In particular, accumulations of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and dust should be avoided.

17. Care should be taken to protect confined birds from draughts in cold conditions.

18. Birds should not be exposed to strong direct sunlight or hot surroundings long enough to cause heat stress as indicated by prolonged panting.

19. Young poults should not be subjected to conditions which cause either panting due to overheating or prolonged huddling and feather ruffling due to under-heating. After about 4 to 5 weeks birds can tolerate a fairly wide range of temperatures; but every effort should be made to avoid creating conditions which will lead to chilling, huddling and subsequent smothering.

20. All turkey accommodation should be so designed that even when fully stocked its ventilation is adequate to protect the birds form overheating under any weather conditions that can reasonably be foreseen.

Stocking rates

21. Irrespective of the type of enclosure or system of management used, all turkeys should have sufficient freedom of movement to be able, without difficulty, to stand normally, turn round and stretch their wings. They should also have sufficient space to be able to perch or sit down without interference from other birds.

22. It cannot be too strongly emphasised that birds kept under any system can be prone to stress, injury and disease if management and husbandry are not of a high standard. Within the present limits of scientific knowledge it is not possible to relay stocking rate to welfare in any simple manner. Stocking rate is only one aspect of a complex situation involving such things as:

  • breed
  • strain and type of bird
  • colony size
  • temperature
  • ventilation
  • lighting
  • quality of housing

The observance of any particular rate cannot, by itself, ensure the welfare of the birds.

23. The following figures are a guide to the minimum available floor area per bird which is acceptable in most circumstances:

​Stocking rates for rearing​
Rearing
Area
Broiler-type housing260 square centimetre per kg
Tier brooders515 square centimetre per kg
Carry-on cages​
Hay boxes raised on wire or slats, and verandas300 square centimetre per kg
Pole barns410 square centimetre per kg
Enclosed range areas10 square meter per bird
​Stocking rates for breeding​
Breeding
Area
On floors Hens kept for insemination, and hens and males kept together for natural mating515 square centimetre per kg
On floors Males kept for artificial insemination1 square meter per bird
In individual pens hens345 square centimetre per kg
In individual pens males1 square meter per bird
In enclosed range areas17 square meter per bird (590 birds per hectare)

24. If disease (particularly respiratory) or vice becomes evident, expert qualified advice should be sought to deal with the problem. Stocking and ventilation rates should also be checked and variations in stocking and ventilation should be considered in order to minimise the likelihood of recurrence of the problem.

Management

Feed and water

25. Birds should have easy access to adequate fresh feed each day and to adequate fresh water at all times. Care should be taken at any change of system to ensure that the birds find the feed and water points.

26. Stale or contaminated feed or water should not be allowed to accumulate and should be replaced immediately. Efforts should be made to minimise the risk of drinking water freezing.

27. In no case should birds be without feed or water for more than 24 hours.

Husbandry

28. Frequent inspection of the stock is essential because the condition and reactions of the birds are the main guides to their welfare. An inspection must be made at least once daily in addition to the looking-over which birds receive during routine management work Injured or dead birds should be removed promptly, as should individual sick birds.

29. It is desirable to establish a regular work routine. Care should be taken not to frighten the birds with sudden unaccustomed movement or noise, but without placing too much emphasis on quietness.

30. Adequate control measures should be taken to protect the birds from disturbance by rodents and other animals.

31. Mouldy litter should not be used. There should be frequent checks to ensure that the litter does not become excessively wet or dry, or infested with mites or other harmful organisms.

32. Premises and equipment should be regularly cleansed. Thorough disinfection should be carried out at suitable times (for example, before restocking) and to reduce the danger of continuing infection.

33. Land on which range birds are kept for prolonged periods may become 'fowl sick'. For example, contaminated with organisms which cause or carry disease to an extent which could seriously prejudice the health of poultry on the land. The time taken for land to become fowl sick depends on the type of land and the stocking rate. Flocks and portable houses should be moved with sufficient regularity to avoid fowl sick or continuously muddy conditions leading to ill-health or discomfort of the birds.

34. Vaccinations, injections and similar procedures should be undertaken by competent, trained operators. Care should be taken to avoid injury and unnecessary disturbance of the birds.

35. Artificial insemination is prohibited except under licence issued by the Minister for Planning and Environment.

36. A programme to control vermin, without endangering the birds, should be in place.

Saddling of hens

37. Before hens are mated they should be fitted with strong saddles, made for example of canvas, to prevent injury to the backs and sides by the males.

Toe cutting

38. To avoid injury to hens during mating, even when saddled, the last joint of the inside toes of the male breeding birds should be removed. This must be done within the first 72 hours of life. A veterinary surgeon must carry out the operation if it is performed after the first 72 hours of life.

Beak trimming

39. When birds are kept in daylight conditions they can be vicious, and beak trimming is an essential aid to management. It is usual to trim beaks as a routine measure before birds leave the brooder or the rearing accommodation and normally it need be done once in the lifetime of the stock.

40. When birds are kept in buildings with a light control system, beak trimming should be carried out only when it is clear that more suffering would be caused in the flock if it were not done.

41. Beak trimming should be done by a skilled operator or under his supervision.

Desnooding

42. When desnooding is done, this should be as soon as possible after hatching. A veterinary surgeon must carry out the operation if it is performed after the first 21 days of life.

Dewinging

43. Dewinging, pinioning, notching or tendon severing, which involves mutilation of wing tissue, must not be undertaken. When it is necessary to reduce the effects of flightiness, the flight feathers of 1 wing may be clipped.

Emergencies and fire prevention

44. In the design of new buildings or alteration of existing ones there should be provision for livestock to be released and evacuated quickly in the case of emergency. Materials used in construction should have sufficient fire resistance and adequate doors and other escape routes should be provided to enable an emergency procedure to be followed in the event of a fire. To reduce the risk to stock from fire and smoke, where possible the storage of straw should be separate to stock accommodation.

45. There is usually some warning of interruptions in the supply of feeding stuffs and, so far as possible, arrangements should be made to lay in adequate stocks of feed or water to offset the worst effects of such a contingency.

Handling and transport of stock on the premises

46. The proper handling of birds requires skill, and it should be undertaken only by competent persons who have appropriately trained. It should be carried out quietly and confidently, exercising care to avoid unnecessary struggling which could bruise or otherwise injure the birds. Care must be taken in catching birds in loose-housed systems in order to avoid creating panic and subsequent injury to or smothering of the birds.

Day-old poults

47. Poults for despatch should be healthy and vigorous and should be placed in suitably ventilated boxes without overcrowding. Care should be taken to ensure adequate ventilation of the boxes, particularly when they are stacked, and to protect the poults from direct sunlight and cold draughts.

48. Packing materials used inside boxes should be dry and free from moulds.

49. Poults should be transferred to the brooders as soon as possible.

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