Inspectors from the National Bee Unit and staff from the Department of the Environment continue to work with local beekeepers to help identify signs of American Foulbrood.
Spring update letter 2019
Island map of infected apiaries 2014
Island map of infected apiaries 2013
Island map of infected apiaries 2012
Island map of infected apiaries 2011
Island map of infected apiaries 2010
Causes of American Foulbrood
American Foulbrood (AFB) is a disease of honey bees caused by a spore-forming bacterium called Paenibacillus larvae. This bacterium forms spores when subjected to stress (such as lack of nutrients); it is these spores that actually cause and are the source of the disease.
Spores enter the larva through feeding of contaminated food. The bacteria kill the bee larva by completely consuming the body tissues.
The spores are highly resistant to extremes of temperature, chemical attack and other adverse conditions and can remain viable for many years. Once hardship has passed, for example, when nutrients become available again, the bacterium will germinate and reproduce. The cycle will repeat if hardship occurs again. This means that it is difficult to eliminate the spores from colonies.
How AFB can spread
AFB can be spread when combs, honey or hive equipment are transferred from an AFB-infected colony to a healthy colony. Bees robbing honey from infected colonies also transmit the disease. Swarms from infected colonies may also carry infection with them and become diseased after they are hived.
If you collect a swarm of unknown origin, the hive should be kept isolated at a separate apiary for at least 12 months to enable disease and quality checks to be completed before considering introduction to established apiaries. A new apiary must be registered with the veterinary section of the Department of the Environment within 28 days.
Hived swarms should be assessed after six weeks and any colonies showing signs of serious disease should be destroyed. Only when satisfied that they do not pose a disease risk should movement to another apiary be considered.
When infected larvae die within the sealed cell, the appearance of the cell cappings change. In the early stages of disease, these changes can be quite delicate and are only detected by careful inspection. The cappings become sunken and perforated when adult bees nibble holes in them to try to remove the infected larva within. Some cappings become greasy looking and slightly darker in colour than other cells.
Even if you only have a slight suspicion of disease, contact the Department of the Environment. We may visit your apiary or ask you to submit a sample of cell material for testing. The sample can be collected using an AFB sample kit which you can collect from;
The Department of the Environment
The Jersey Bee Keepers Association or
Parish Halls in St Brelade, St Ouen, St Peter, Grouville or St Martin
The sampling kit contains a cocktail stick which can be used to scratch open the surface to inspect the cell. If the remains can be drawn out in a brown, mucus-like thread or “rope” this is an indicator that disease is present.
The sample of brood cell contents should be placed in the tube and labelled with your name, hive identification number, apiary site and date. The stick should be put in your smoker and destroyed before moving onto another colony. The sample should be delivered to the department as soon as possible, where it will be tested. Testing only takes a few minutes and we will report the result to you as soon as possible.
AFB is a notifiable disease meaning it is subject to official controls including compulsory destruction of infected colonies.
Destruction is by burning, where possible in a pit adjacent to the hive, under the supervision of an authorised person. You must take precautions to prevent spread of fire and you should notify the Fire and Rescue Service in advance. Alternatively, arrangements can be made to double bag material and incinerate it at the Energy from Waste Unit at La Collette
Hives and appliances can be sterilised by thoroughly scorching them with a blow lamp. Gloves, overalls, footwear and the smoker should then be washed thoroughly in washing soda or hot soapy water. Care must be taken to ensure that plastic, rubber or other materials likely to produce noxious smoke are not included in the burning requirement. It is also not practical to scorch polystyrene and non-timber hives by fire and these should be disposed of in a way that ensures that the end point of disposal is at the Energy from Waste Unit at La Collette.
There are no public health implications from AFB.
What other bee diseases and pests are notifiable?
American Foulbrood and European Foulbrood are notifiable diseases. Small hive beetle and any species of the Tropilaelaps mite are notifiable pests.
If a notifiable disease or notifiable pest is found, or suspected, you must contact the Veterinary Section, Department of the Environment.
Bee keeper bio-security
Beekeepers should ensure that all relevant bio-security and bee hygiene measures are taken.
Cleaning and disinfection of tools
A solution of washing soda in water is recommended to disinfect tools. A concentration of approximately 1 kg soda in 1 gallon (4.5 litres) is suitable. Adding a small amount of detergent (washing-up liquid) to the solution will help with cleaning.
If you prepare the solution in advance you should label the container ‘washing soda solution’ and include the date of preparation and expiry (maximum of 1 month from preparation).
Immerse the tools in the solution and, using a scrubbing brush, scouring pad or similar, scrub off residues until the tools are clean.
Tools can be left soaking in a container of washing soda solution when not in use or when in transit between apiaries.
Discard the solution when it becomes discoloured or after working in an apiary with foul brood infection.
- immerse the gloves in a container of washing soda solution (as above)
- rub the fingers together or scrub with a brush or scouring pad to remove traces of honey and propolis
- strong rubber gloves can be washed in a washing machine with beekeeping overalls
Cleaning boots and smoker
Remove traces of honey and propolis by scrubbing in a solution of washing soda (as above).
Cleaning bee suits, boiler suits and veils
These cannot be adequately cleaned in the field although traces of honey can be removed with water. Wash in hot water with detergent in a domestic washing machine. Follow the washing instructions attached to each garment. It may be necessary to wash veils by hand if they are unsuitable for washing by machine.
Washing bare hands
Wash hands using soap and warm water. Do not use cleaning agents not intended for use on the skin as these may cause skin irritation.